Butter - PDST

Butter Water in fat emulsion Cream is pasteurised Churned in a drum Fat globules coalesce Liquid buttermilk drained off Salt added Butter weighed, cut and packed Fat + Water content controlled by Law PDST Home Economics Nutritive Value

Protein Some HBV protein. All the casein in the buttermilk Fat 80% Saturated fat (butyric acid) Cholesterol present Carbohydrate Most of the lactose drained off with the buttermilk, only trace left Minerals Trace of calcium, sodium chloride added Vitamins Vitamins A+D Water By law must contain no more than 16% Classification of Butter Salted butter, unsalted butter, reduced-fat butter, cream butter, spreadable butter and concentrated butter

Dairy Spreads Mixture of butter and vegetable oils. Spreadable straight from the fridge. Reduced fat dairy spreads. These have only half the fat of butter or margarine Culinary Uses of Butter/Margarine Adds flavour to food e.g. potatoes Prevents food from sticking e.g. sausages on pan Adds moistness to food e.g. bread

Shortening agent e.g. pastry Required for making sauces e.g. white roux sauce Emulsions. Component of emulsions e.g. mayonnaise Prolongs shelf life e.g. cakes Margarine

Oil extraction. Oil refined to remove strong flavours and any impurities Hydrogenation. Hydrogen gas passed through the oil (in the presence of a nickel catalyst) to artificially harden it. Unsaturated fat changed to saturated. Blending. Other ingredients added, skimmed milk, salt, colouring, antioxidants, emulsifiers and vitamins A+D Churning. Mixed in a votator until the correct consistency is achieved Temperature. Temperature is lowered between 5 100C Shaping + packaging Margarin e

Oil extracted Hydrogen gas passed through Blended with other ingredients Churning Temperature lowered Shaped + packed Functional Dairy Spreads Proven to reduce cholesterol e.g. Benecol, Flora Pro-Active.

Made from sunflower oil, vegetable oil, buttermilk, plant stanol, water and salt. The plant sterols (stanol ester) prevents the absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine so that it is excreted from the body. If stanol is included in the diet there will be a reduction in blood cholesterol levels, so this will result in a reduction in the risk of heart disease. There are no hydrogenated fatty acids and virtually no trans-fatty acids in these spreads. Suitable for spreading , baking and frying. Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a soft wax like substance found in all the cells of the body Most of the cholesterol in the body is made in the liver and the rest obtained from animal foods Cholesterol in the blood helps transport fats around the body Cholesterol is bound to certain proteins forming lipoproteins High density lipoproteins are the good type and help to remove cholesterol from the body Low density lipoproteins are harmful and are associated with the build up of cholesterol on the arteries thus causing heart disease Normal blood cholesterol may vary between 150 250 mg per 100ml of blood

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