Can Recursive Bisection Alone Produce Routable Placements?

Can Recursive Bisection Alone Produce Routable Placements?

GTX: GTX: The The MARCO MARCO GSRC GSRC Technology Technology Extrapolation Extrapolation System System A. Caldwell, Y. Cao, A. B. Kahng, F. Koushanfar, H. Lu, I. Markov, M. Oliver, D. Stroobandt and D. Sylvester Supported by Cadence, Synopsys and the MARCO Gigascale Silicon Research Center Outline Introduction Previous efforts Goals for an ideal system GTX structure Fundamental features of GTX Example studies Sensitivity analyses of cycle-time models Evaluating new device models

Delay uncertainty study 2 Introduction: Technology Extrapolation What is the most power-efficient noise Evaluates impact of design technology process technology Evaluates impact on achievable design associated design problems Questions to be addressed management strategy? How and when do L, SOI, SER, etc. matter? Will layout tools need to perform process simulation to efficiently

model cross-die and cross-wafer manufacturing variation? Sets new requirements for CAD tools and methodologies Roadmaps: familiar and influential example 3 Sample Study 1: Optimization Most commonly cited optimal buffer sizing expression (Bakoglu) R C S New study: int Rint Cin Sweep repeater size for single stage in the chain Examine both delay and energy-delay product Lseg = 2.14 mm W=S=1m W=S=0.5m 2.2

6 2.0 5 1.8 4 1.6 1.4 3 1.2 2 1.0 0.8 0 100 200 300 400 Repeater Size (X min size)

500 1 Normalized Energy-Delay Product 2.4 Critical Path Delay (ns) D Bakoglu optimal sizing 4 Sample Study 2: New Models Five different interconnect models Wire Delay (ps) 225

175 Bakoglus model (RC) [Alpert, Devgan and Kashyap, ISPD 2000] (RC) [Ismail, Friedman and Neves, TCAD 19(1), 2000] (RLC) [Kahng and Muddu, TCAD 1997] (RLC) Extension of [Alpert, Devgan and Kashyap, ISPD 2000] (RLC) RC_ADK RC_ADK 145 RC_B Wire Delay (ps) RLC_ADK RLC_IFN 125 RLC_KM HSPICE 75

RC_B RLC_ADK 125 RLC_IFN 105 RLC_KM 85 HSPICE 65 45 25 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Wire Length (mm)

8.0 9.0 10.0 25 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Wire Width (m) 1.2 1.4 5 What Do We Need? Reuse of existing models, effort Framework for adding new models to encompass new aspects of technology, new axes of achievable design Ability to evaluate models (sanity, consistency

checks) Easy model substitution to compare between models Sweeping ability to assess the impact of modeling choices Constraints to allow elimination of infeasible solutions 6 What is Available? Previous and ongoing efforts ITRS Roadmaps Tools: SUSPENS, GENESYS, RIPE, BACPAC, Numerous tools in industry Observations Predict same parameters but different assumptions, inputs Lack of documentation and visibility of internal calculations Single inference chain for a given output (hard-coded)

Inflexible: user cannot define studies of related parameters Near-total duplication of effort Missing: models of CAD tools and optimizations (what is really achievable?) Missing: scope, comprehensive coverage 7 Goals of A New Technology Extrapolation System Flexibility Edit or define new parameters and relations between them Perform specific studies (but different studies at different times) Quality Continuous improvements World-wide participation of experts Transparency Open-source mechanism Models are visible to the user Prevention of redundant effort Permanent repository of first choice Adoptability and maintainability 8 GTX: GSRC Technology Extrapolation System GTX is set up as a framework for technology extrapolation Knowledge User inputs

Parameters (data) Rules (models) Pre-packaged Rule chain (study) GTX Implementation Engine (derivation) GUI (presentation) Openness in grammar, parameters and rules Easy sharing of data in research environment Contributions from other groups 9 Knowledge Representation Human-readable ASCII grammar #parameter dl_chip #type double #units {m} #default 1e-2 #description

chip side length #reference #endparameter #rule BACPAC_dl_chip #description #output double {m} dl_chip; #inputs double {m^2} dA_chip; #body sqrt(dA_chip) #reference #endrule 10 Knowledge Representation Human-readable ASCII grammar Benefits: Easy creation/sharing of parameters/rules by multiple users Extensible to models of arbitrary complexity (specialized prediction methods, technology data sets, optimization engines)

D. Sylvester and Y. Cao: device and power, SOI modules that drop in to GTX P.K. Nag: Yield modeling Avant! Apollo or Cadence SE P&R tool: just another wirelength estimator Applies to any domain of work in semiconductors, VLSI CAD Transistor sizing, single wire optimizations, system-level wiring predictions, 11 Parameters Description of technology, circuit and design attributes Importance of consistent naming cannot be overstated Naming conventions for parameters [] _ _ {[qualifier] _ } _ {} _ [] _ [] _ []

Example: r_int_tot_lyr_pu_dl Requirements: Relatively easy to understand parameter from its name Distinguishable (no two parameters should have the same name) r_int (interconnect resistance) = r_int (interconnect resistivity) ? Unique (no two names for the same parameter) R_int = R_wire ? Sortable (important literals come first) Software to automatically check parameter naming 12 Rules Methods to derive unknown from known parameters ASCII rules Laws of physics, models of electrical behavior, statistical models Include closed-form expressions, vector operations, tables Storing of calibration data (e.g., technology files) for known process and design points in lookup tables

Constraints, used to limit range during sweeping External executable rules Assume a callable executable (e.g., PERL script) Use command-line interface and transfer through files Allow complex semantics of a rule Code rules Implemented in C++ and linked into the inference engine 13 Rule Chains Rule chains guide inference Acyclic set of rules Interactive specification and comparison of alternative modeling choices Studies

Input values + rules that make a rule chain User-controlled and savable Sweeping of a rule chain Evaluation of all combinations of multi-valued inputs Example: clock frequency for different Rent exponents and varying logic depth 14 GTX Engine Knowledge User inputs Implementation Parameters (data) Rules (models) Pre-packaged

GTX Rule chain (study) Engine (derivation) GUI (presentation) Contains no domain-specific knowledge Evaluates rules in topological order Performs studies Multiple values through sweeping Runs on three platforms (Solaris, Windows and Linux) URL: 15 Graphical User Interface (GUI) Provides user interaction Visualization (plotting, printing, saving to file) 4 views: Parameters Rules Rule chain Values in chain

16 GTX Current Status Models implemented Cycle-time models of SUSPENS (with extension by Takahashi), BACPAC (Sylvester, Berkeley), Fisher (ITRS) Currently adding GENESYS (with help from Georgia Inst. Tech.) RIPE (with help from Rensselaer Univ.) New device and power modules (Synopsys / Berkeley) New SOI device model (Synopsys / Berkeley) Inductance models (Silicon Graphics / Berkeley / Synopsys) Yield model (CMU)

Studies performed in GTX Model analysis Study of the impact of parameters Design optimization studies 17 Outline Introduction Previous efforts Goals for an ideal system GTX structure Fundamental features Example studies Sensitivity analyses of cycle-time models Evaluating new device models Delay uncertainty study 18 Sensitivity Analysis of Cycle-time Models: Parameter Sensitivity

Change parameter values and observe resulting difference in outputs 19 Sensitivity Analysis of Cycle-time Models: Model Sensitivity Replace rule in a models rule chain by another models rule and observe the difference in outputs BACPAC BACPAC with rule from Fisher 20 Bulk Si Versus SOI Device Models New device models for bulk Si and Silicon-onInsulator (SOI) devices Provided by D. Sylvester (Synopsys) and Y. Cao (UCB) SOI model assumes partially-depleted SOI (PD-SOI) technology and is based on popular BSIM3SOI models Both modules compared to BSIM3 HSPICE runs; results match within 10% S G D General study

Floating body effect: changes in vth and Idsat Subs Calculate range of possible Idsat values Model ignores the impact of capacitive coupling on body voltage Dynamic delay (due to coupling capacitances between same-layer interconnects) 21 Bulk Si Versus SOI Device Models (Cont.) Influence of device technology on clock frequency and power Best case: largest Idsat (realizable due to floating body effect, only for SOI) and no effective coupling capacitance: f from 1.03 GHz (bulk) to 1.31 GHz (SOI) Worst case: smallest Idsat and switching factor of 2: 867 MHz and 1.05 GHz Bulk Si SOI Power results P (W) %

P (W) % Logic + local wires 26.20 46.18 28.99 43.91 2.20 3.88 2.60 3.93 I/O drivers + pads 11.71 20.65 13.35 20.22

Clock distribution 7.93 13.98 9.65 14.62 Memory 0.94 1.66 0.86 1.31 Short circuit 7.68 13.54 10.21 15.47

Leakage 0.07 0.12 0.36 0.54 56.74 100.00 66.03 100.00 Global interconnects Total power SOI: 16% increase in power versus Bulk but 24% increase in frequency 22 Bulk Si Versus SOI Device Models (Cont.)

Parameter sensitivity of both models Several technology related parameters are varied by +/- 10% SOI slightly less sensitive to input parameter changes Process spread (between best-case and worst-case) larger for SOI 23 Delay Uncertainty Study Staggered repeaters First introduced in [Kahng et al, VLSI Design 99] to reduce delay and noise SOI (NS) bulk (NS) SOI (S) bulk (S) 24 Conclusion GTX: a new framework for technology extrapolation Flexible and extensible Enables easy reuse of models Provides a common parameter base between all models

Provides user interaction Relies on open-source and contributions by expert users Living Roadmap Technology extrapolation becomes easier More principled understanding of requirements for CAD tools URL: 25 GTX Project Information Design: A. Caldwell, A. B. Kahng, I. Markov, M. Oliver and D. Stroobandt Implementation: M. Oliver Knowledge gathering and study implementation: A. B. Kahng, F. Koushanfar, H. Lu and D. Stroobandt Model extensions and new studies: Y. Cao, X. Huang, S. Muddu, P.K. Nag and D. Sylvester Detailed information and downloading of latest version of GTX: To contact the developers, ask questions, send comments, or to contribute models to GTX, please send E-mail to [email protected] 26

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