Carbohydrates - images.pcmac.org

Organic Polymers Organic=contains carbon Polymer=Macromolecule Polymers are made during polymerization Polymers are made of many monomers There are 4 organic polymers: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins

Carbohydrates Monomer: Monosaccharides (one or single sugar) Elements found in it: C, H, and O Function: Serve as our main source of energy Examples: Monosaccharides: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose Disaccharides: Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose Polysaccharides: Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose 3 other facts: a) have a 1:2:1 ratio b) Most of

them end in ose c) also known as sugars Lipids Monomer: Fatty Acid and Glycerol Elements found in it: C and H Function: store energy Examples: Phospholipids: 2 fatty acids joined to one glycerol Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids joined to one glycerol Wax: made of a long chain of fatty

acids and glycerols 3 Other facts: a) saturated fats are solid at room temp.( bad for you) b) unsaturated fats are liquid at room temp. ( good for you ) c) cholesterol and steriods are examples of lipids Nucleic Acid Monomer: Nucleotide Elements found in it: C, H, N, P, and O Function: store and send genetic information, make proteins Types: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ; Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Examples: DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

3 Other facts: a) the sugar for DNA is deoxyribose b) three parts of a nucleotide are: sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base c) the sugar for RNA is ribose Protein Monomer: Amino Acids Elements found in it: C, H, N, and O Function: a) Serve as antibodies to protect against diseases b) Help to transport substances through the body c) Serve as enzymes d) Form muscles, skin, hair, bone, ligaments, etc. Examples: tyrosine, serine , alanine 3 Other facts: a) most end in ine b) enzymes are a type of protein c) The R group determines the type of amino acid

Enzymes Monomer: Amino Acids (most enzymes are proteins) Function: Serve as catalyst to speed up chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy Examples: amylase, maltase, lactase, sucrase 3 other facts: a) most end in ase b) enzymes are affected by pH change c) enzyme only work on specific substrates

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