System of Systems (SoS) SYS 579 Spring 2017 - Session 6 Enterprise Systems Engineering (ESE) 21 February 2017 Brian E. White, Ph.D. Instructor CAUSES Robert S. Swarz, Ph.D. Professor of Practice 02/26/2020 1 Sessions to Date 02/26/2020 Session 1 Course Overview 1 Session 2 Course Overview 2 Session 3 Systems of Systems (SoSs) Session 4 Systems of Systems Engineering (SoSE) Session 5 Enterprises Session 6 Enterprise Systems Engineering (ESE)

2 Proposed Agenda Emphasis on SoSE from ESE perspective (people included) ESE guidance (from SEBoK*) Checklands Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) SSM Examples Some Comments on Agile Systems Engineering (SE) Takeaways Appendix

Syllabus (update), Reminders, and Assignments Bibliography and References; Partial List of Abbreviations and Acronyms (see latest on Canvas in Files) 02/26/2020 _______ *Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge Structural change in publishing company (an SoS) Vehicle traffic flow efficiency (an enterprise) 3 See Notes Page SoSE from Enterprise Perspective (1/3) Here (at least in this Session) people are included in any enterprise, intentionally and explicitly. This is not usually the case with SoSs. This may be a reason why SoSE techniques have not advanced much in practice. So far most SoSE methods seem to rely on employing or extending classical SE.

ESE is offered to SoSE, as well. This course is focused on SoS and SoSE, these being arguably the principal and most popular modern topics currently emphasized at the forefront of SE. ESE techniques will significantly enhance SoSE methods if people are included. So systems engineers are encouraged to apply ESE to SoSs. Looking ahead to CSs and CSE, people are included there, as well Their roles and impacts are even greater than in enterprises. One goal will be to highlight what is relevant about CSs and CSE that can be applied to SoSs and SoSE. 02/26/2020 4 See Notes Page SoSE from Enterprise Perspective (2/3) Classical systems engineering (SE) and the associated systems analyses may not work as well with SoSs, let alone in enterprises or CSs, because so much is ill-defined. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) (Checkland 1999) is one remedy for confusion and uncertainty in most problems. This counters most SE techniques, where primary stakeholders are thought to be in control. This is usually not the case in difficult situations; one can only influence the systems development and its environment. Apply SSM (or similar techniques) geared to people being part of system.

This is a learning experience leading to improvements albeit less predictably. An enterprise is not an SoS according to (strict) definitions of SoSs. A given portion of enterprise may not be managed or operate on its own in the enterprise environment, as with SoS. After discussion of SSM, a publishing enterprise example, will be seen to correspond to an SoS because its divisions could be separately managed and operated on their own. However, then another enterprise example, viz., vehicle traffic in populated region which must be managed with safety and efficiency, is shown to not (strictly) correspond to an SoS. 02/26/2020 5 See Notes Page SoSE from Enterprise Perspective (3/3) In classical SE the focus is on cost, schedule, and performance; you can have any two! ESE and SoSE require a strategic architecture to guide the system development (see Appendix, Charts 96-103). This architecture does not change much compared to changes in system.

Measures of progress are needed, for example, in attempting to quantify the degrees of Humility Leadership Vision/Mission motivation Holism Employment of trans-disciplines, POET*, etc. Problem understanding _______ Dialog and information sharing * Politics, Operations, Economics, and Technology Self-organization Discussion Board 6 - Problem 1: Collaboration (cooperation and competition)

Choose a or b below. Experimentation in operational environs a. Give example of an SoS that usually is Formulation of decision-making heuristics not Rewards for results considered an enterprise because people are not included in that SoS. Application of lessons learned. b. Suggest three metrics for measuring progress in an SoS or enterprise. SoSE and ESE also require appropriate metrics to instantiate, make real, and track the proposed measures. 02/26/2020 6 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (1/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (1/7) Capabilities in the Enterprise (SEBoK 2014a) Individual Competence Leads to Organizational, System & Operational Capability 02/26/2020 7

See Notes Page ESE Guidance (2/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (2/7) Organizational Capabilities and Competencies (SEBoK 2014a) Capability: Ability to do something useful under particular conditions Organizational capability Competence/Competency: Ability of people relative to ESE [or SoSE] task o o Contributes to organizational capability Translated through work practices System capability Operational capability New/enhanced systems o o Contribute to operational capability Respond to stakeholders concerns about problem situation. Enterprise stakeholders are ultimate arbiters of system value. Capabilities cannot be designed, improved, and implemented independently. Capability interdependencies are understood through architecture modeling and analysis. Capability engineering is emerging discipline that could enhance ESE [or

SoSE] effectiveness. 02/26/2020 8 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (3/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (3/7) Organizational Design (SEBoK 2014a) Organizational design should specify roles, authorities, responsibilities, and accountabilities (RARA) to ensure most efficient and effective operations. Enterprise [and SoS] effectiveness is driven by leadership and management Principles Concepts Approaches. Organizational structure should create value for enterprise stakeholders. Enterprise includes People Processes Technologies Assets. Structure and responsibilities are Design decisions for an enterprise [or an SoS] Key ESE elements. Organizational design is

Influenced by oPortfolio of products and services oDegree of coupling between them. Based on organizational design patterns and their tradeoffs. 02/26/2020 9 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (4/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (4/7) Operational Capabilities & Operational Services (SEBoK 2014a) Operational capabilities provide operational services enabled by system capabilities inherent in the system that is conceived, developed, created and/ or operated by an enterprise [or an SoS]. ESE [or SoSE] addresses solving problems but also deals with exploitation of opportunities for better ways to achieve enterprise [or SoS] goals such as Lowering of operating costs Increasing market share Decreasing deployment risk Reducing time to market, etc.

The importance of opportunities should not be underestimated in ESE [or in SoSE] practices. The organization or enterprise [or an SoS] can deal with either the system as a whole or with only one (or a few) of its elements. Not necessarily including the usual hard items, like hardware and software but Including soft items, like people, processes, principles, policies, practices, organizations, doctrine, theories, beliefs, etc. 02/26/2020 10 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (5/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (5/7) Services vs. Products vs. Enterprises (SEBoK 2014a) Service system: Collection of elements that perform operations, administration, management, and provisioning (OAM&P) of resources that provide value opportunities for the service provider and the consumer Services enabled by a service system are distinct from services that are the part of a service system element. A product system can be composed of hardware, software, personnel, facilities, data, materials, techniques, and even services. Each of these product system elements can be engineered. A collection of services is not necessarily A service system

But is often (merely?) an OAM&P product system An enterprise [or an SoS] May be composed of service and product systems, policies, procedures, properties, knowledge, financial capital, intellectual capital, etc. ESE [or SoSE] may get involved in engineering service and product systems. 02/26/2020 11 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (6/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (6/7) Enterprise Components (1/2) (SEBoK 2014a) [Categories] of Enterprise Components (Troux Technologies 2010).* Reprinted with permission of Copyright 2010 Troux Technologies. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. ______ 02/26/2020 * Recall the Zachman framework from Chart 49 of Session 4 for comparison perhaps. 12

See Notes Page ESE Guidance (7/45) Enterprise Systems Engineering Background (7/7) Enterprise Components (2/2) (SEBoK 2014a) Application/software Deployed software, applications, modules, servers, patches, functions, and messages Infrastructure/hardware Computers, networks, devices, and cabinets Subtypes of computing hardware o Computers, servers, desktops, laptops, and mainframes domains are familiar to systems engineers. This semantic model had its origins in the area of information technology (IT) management but has been successfully expanded beyond the IT domain. Domain elaboration can include quite extensive modeling. The less technical domains include policy, market, strategy, transition, financial, knowledge and skill, and analysis. Enterprise [or SoS] architecture schema might include over a hundred types of modeling objects grouped into these domains. 02/26/2020

Various tools used in modeling the enterprise [or SoS] are described at (IEAD 2011). (Institute for Enterprise Architecture Developments) Also, note the TOGAF metamodel ( used in ______ The Open Group Architecture Framework* * see Charts 96-103 13 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (8/45) Scope of ESE (1/4) An effective and efficient enterprise [or SoS] depends on viewing the whole enterprise [or SoS] as a system, rather than as functions connected by information systems and shared facilities. Essential strategic challenges Growth: Increasing impact, perhaps in saturated/declining markets Value: Enhancing cost/benefit relationships of processes Focus: Pursuing opportunities and avoiding [other] diversions

Change: Competing creatively while maintaining continuity Future: Investing in inherently unpredictable outcomes Knowledge: Transforming information to insights for programs Time: Carefully allocating this scarcest resource. People in the enterprise [or SoS] are the principal source of value in addressing the above challenges. Understanding and supporting the interests of an enterprises [or SoSs] diverse stakeholders and finding the sweet spot among the many competing interests is central to the work andin creating work mechanisms (Rouse 2009). 02/26/2020 14 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (9/45) Scope of ESE (2/4) Enterprise Transformation (1/2) (SEBoK 2014a) Enterprises [or SoSs or complex systems] continually transform themselves, at the Individual level (participants alter their work practices) Enterprise [or SoS or complex system] level (large-scale, planned strategic changes) These transformations result from evolving opportunities and emerging threats. Not merely doing work better, but doing different work is often a more important. Value is created through execution of business processes but not all processes are valuable. Focusing on how processes create value is critical.

Understanding how best to deploy and manage the enterprises [or SoSs] human, financial, and physical assets is part of ESE [or SoSE]. The key challenge is continuing to satisfice key stakeholders. Satisfice means to decide on and pursue action(s) satisfying essential requirements to achieve stakeholder goal(s) for the enterprise [or SoS]. This is less stringent than satisfaction in product/service systems engineering. 02/26/2020 15 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (10/45) Scope of ESE (3/4) Enterprise Transformation (2/2) (SEBoK 2014a) What has increased: Interconnection of products and systems, due to, for example Inter-system technological capability(ies) that transform businesses and operations Need to o Create families of systems to increase product diversity and reuse technology, while reducing development and operating costs o Build and integrate flexible (but perhaps unforeseen) operational systems. Collaborative systems development activities, often spanning national boundaries Meta-system (with complex parts) development Conceived of and developed as a whole Requiring o Fresh approaches

o Adaptation of old approaches. Tackling these issues requires ESE [and SoS] engineers to adopt approaches that transcend the technical and process domain to address integration at organizational and value chain levels. 02/26/2020 16 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (11/45) Scope of ESE (4/4) Transformation Context (SEBoK 2014a) Context for Enterprise Transformation (Rouse 2009). Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons Inc. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. 02/26/2020 17 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (12/45) Modeling the Enterprise Drivers and Outcomes for the Enterprise (Rouse 2009). Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons Inc. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner.

02/26/2020 18 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (13/45) In Pursuit of Value Four alternative perspectives tend to drive the need for enterprise [or SoS] transformation toward value Opportunities Threats Competition Crises. Enterprise [or SoS] work processes can be enhanced, streamlined, eliminated, and re-invented to increase value if such changes are strategically aligned. As shown on the preceding two charts, there are many entities involved in helping the enterprise create value for society, participating organizations, and other stakeholders. 02/26/2020

19 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (14/45) ESE (1/3) Resource Optimization (SEBoK 2014a) Resource optimization attempts to maximize value for the enterprise [or SoS] and its stakeholders. In a product-oriented organization, projects may be responsible for hiring, training, and firing their own staff, as well as managing all assets required for their delivery of products or services. In a functional organization, the projects delegate almost all their work to functional groups. A matrix organization is used to give functional specialists a home between project assignments. An enterprise [or SoS] can choose (or not) to unify its operations and can choose (or not) to unify its information base. 02/26/2020 20 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (15/45) ESE (2/3) Enabling Systems Engineering in the Organization and Kinds of Knowledge Used by the Enterprise (SEBoK 2014a)

SE skills, techniques, and resources are relevant to many enterprise [or SoS] functions. A well-founded SE capability can make substantial contributions at the enterprise [or SoS] or project level. Explicit and tacit knowledge are key resources for ESE [or SoSE]. Explicit knowledge can be written down or incorporated in computer codes. Tacit knowledge only exists within the Heads of people Contexts of their relationships. The ability of an organization to create value is critically dependent on the People it employs What they know How they work together How well they are organized and motivated. 02/26/2020 21 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (16/45) ESE (3/3) Projects, Programs & Businesses (SEBoK 2014a) Program is used in various ways in different domains, e.g., in connection with a/an Team, e.g., as for a support team in a customer relationship program. Entire business, e.g., as in a wireless communications business unit program. Whole enterprise [or SoS], e.g., as in the Joint Strike Fighter or Apollo Space program. Program and project are often used interchangeably. Program managers typically

Have profit and loss responsibility. Are the ultimate program decision makers. May have a portfolio of services, products, facilities, intellectual property, etc. provided, implemented, or acquired through projects. The Office of Government Commerce distinguishes programs and projects. (OGC 2010) The ultimate goal of a Program is to realise outcomes and benefits of strategic relevance. To achieve this a program is designed as a temporary flexible organisation[al] structure created to coordinate, direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related Projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organisations strategic objectives... . A Program is likely to have a life that spans several years. A Project is usually of shorter duration (a few months perhaps) and will be focused on the creation of a set of deliverables within agreed cost, time and quality parameters. 02/26/2020 22 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (17/45) Practical Considerations When performing SE at the enterprise [or SoS] level, keep good practices in mind (Rebovich and White 2011) Set enterprise [or SoS] fitness as the key measure of success. Leverage o o o

o o o Game theory Ecology Practices of satisfying and governing the commons Layered architectures Loose coupling Order/Chaos theory. Deal with uncertainty and conflict through adaptation. Variety Selection Exploration Experimentation. Enterprise [or SoS] governance involves shaping the political, operational, economic, and technical (POET) landscape. One should not try to control the enterprise [or SoS] like one would in a traditional SE effort at the project level. 02/26/2020 23

See Notes Page ESE Guidance (18/45) Key ESE Concepts ESE [or SoSE] is complementary to Traditional Systems Engineering (TSE). TSE is heavily invested in system acquisition and implementation, especially in the context of government acquisition of very large, complex military and civil systems (e.g., F22 fighter jet and air traffic control systems). ESE [or SoSE] overlaps with this traditional role in system acquisition, but also incorporates enterprise strategic planning, architecture, capability and technology planning, investment analysis, assessment, etc. These additional roles for SE at the enterprise [or SoS] level 02/26/2020 Tend to be more entrepreneurial, business-driven, and economic in nature in comparison to the more technical nature of TSE. Are shared not only with ESE and SoS engineers but also with senior managers, advisors, and other stakeholders . 24 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (19/45) Closing the Gap (1/2)

Enterprise SE Process Areas in the Context of the Entire Enterprise (DeRosa 2006). Reprinted with permission of 2011. The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. 02/26/2020 25 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (20/45) Closing the Gap (2/2) TSE is viewed by many organizations and depicted in many process definitions as bounded by the beginning and end of a system development project. Many have taken a wider view seeking to apply SE to the whole system and life cycle, e.g., A holistic, whole-life, wider system view centered on operational purpose. The differences between the development phase and in-service SE. ESE [or SoSE] is more like a regimen responsible for Identifying outcome spaces Shaping the development environment Coupling development to operations Rewarding results rather than perceived promises Etc. ESE [or SoSE] must continually characterize the Operational environmental Results of enterprise or SoS interventions Outcome spaces

By a set of desired capabilities that help meet enterprise [or SoS] objectives Capabilities Break 1: As we continue to plow through this guidance, please think of what you would like covered in more depth. Must be robust enough to handle unknown threats and situations. 02/26/2020 26 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (21/45) ESE Requirements Role TSE (Traditional Systems Engineering) tries to translate user needs into system requirements that drive the system design. These requirements must be frozen to stay on track while the system is designed, developed, tested, built, and delivered. But in many acquisitions this typically takes years, and sometimes decades, during which requirements surely change significantly. In ESE [or SoSE] the enterprise [or SoS] must be driven by continually changing (among other things)

Organizational visions Goals Governance priorities Evolving technologies User expectations. ESE [or SoSE] emphasizes outcomes (e.g., business analysis and mission needs analysis), especially those related to the enterprise goals and key mission needs. 02/26/2020 27 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (22/45) Enterprise Entities and Relationships (1/2) Asset Domain Domain Categories for Enterprise Entities* Table 1.and AssetConcept Domain and Concept Domain Categories

for Enterprise Technologies 2010) of Copyright 2010 Troux Entities. (Troux 2010) (Troux Reprinted with permission Reprinted with permission of Copyright 2010 Troux Technologies. Technologies. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. Asset Domains Concept Domains Application and Software Domain Analysis Domain Data Domain Document Domain Financial Domain General Domain Infrastructure and Hardware Domain IT Information Domain IT Architecture Product Domain IT Service Domain Domain Knowledge and Skill Domain

Location Domain Organization Domain Market Domain Policy Domain Process Product and Service Domain Services Domain Resource Domain Strategy Portfolio Management Domain Domain Timeline Domain Transition Domain ________ * Please sort through the above lists (in your head) to separate the names of the various domains. It might be useful to revisit Chart 12 to cross-reference this list. 02/26/2020 28 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (23/45) Enterprise Entities and Relationships (2/2) Example of Enterprise Entities & Relationships (Troux Technologies 2010). Reprinted with permission of Copyright 2010 Troux Technologies. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. 02/26/2020

29 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (24/45) Enterprise Architecture Frameworks & Methodologies Enterprise architecture frameworks Standardize viewpoints, views, and models used for describing (not developing) the architecture of the enterprise [or SoS]. Relate to descriptive models of an enterprise [or SoS]. Five prominent architectural frameworks are (also see Charts 96-103) 02/26/2020 Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture (my favorite!) Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF) The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF). 30 See Notes Page

ESE Guidance (25/45) ESE Process Activities (1/3) Enabling Systematic Enterprise Change Seven types of change Effectiveness Efficiency Improving Cutting Copying Differentiating Achieving. Pursuing good ESE [or SoSE] helps determine the balances between Complexity and Order, and Effectiveness and Efficiency. 02/26/2020 31

See Notes Page ESE Guidance (26/45) ESE Process Activities (2/3) Balancing Effectiveness and Efficiency Healthy development through good ESE [or SoSE] requires data, information, knowledge, and understanding/wisdom, all of which increase the efficiency of the enterprise [or SoS]. The value of the pursued objective(s) helps determine effectiveness. Effectiveness is evaluated efficiency, viz., efficiency times value. Intelligence is primarily the ability to increase efficiency. Wisdom is especially the ability to increase effectiveness. The difference between efficiency and effectiveness is reflected in the difference between development and growth, respectively. Growth does not require an increase in value.* Healthy development does require an increase in value. Good ESE [or SoSE] balances effectiveness and efficiency. Value stream analysis can help ESE [or SoSE] identify inefficiencies _______ or ineffective results. * Growth merely for its own sake is not a worthwhile goal. 02/26/2020 32 See Notes Page

ESE Guidance (27/45) ESE Process Activities (3/3) 02/26/2020 Value Stream Example. (Source: Accessed September 6, 2010. US EPA Lean and Environment Toolkit, Public Domain.) 33 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (28/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (1/8) Enterprise Systems Engineering Process Activities. (SEBoK Original) 02/26/2020 34 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (29/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (2/8) Strategic Technical Planning (STP) Establishes the overall technical strategy for the enterprise. Creates balance between the adoption of standards and the use of new technologies. Considers people aspects driven by the relevant trans-disciplinary technical principles and practices from psychology, sociology, organizational change management, etc.

Uses roadmaps developed during Technology and Standards Planning (TSP) (see two charts hence). Maps these technologies and standards against the capabilities roadmap to determine potential alignment and synergy. Identifies opportunities to pursue and/or risks to avoid. Defines technical strategy in terms of implementation guidance. STP and TSP are separate processes because they are often done by different groups with different skill sets. 02/26/2020 TSP is often done by the technology and science groups. TSP is done closer to (if not in) the chief architect and budget planning groups. Technology proposed by TSP sometimes align with needed and timely capabilities. STP balances technology push and capability pull. 35 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (30/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (3/8) Capability-Based Planning Analysis Translates the enterprise [or SoS] vision and goals into capabilities.

Current missions are analyzed to determine their suitability. Potential future missions are examined. Capabilities are assessed to identify gaps. Program, project, and system opportunities are assessed. There are different types of capabilities. (e.g., as shown on Chart 7) They are described in terms of hierarchies and roadmaps. 02/26/2020 Technology roadmaps relate to system capabilities. Business roadmaps relate to operational capabilities. Competency roadmaps deal with organizational capabilities. 36 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (31/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (4/8) Technology and Standards Planning Characterizes technology trends in the commercial marketplace

and research community. Covers o Trend identification and analysis o Technology development o Transition of technology into programs and projects. Identifies current and predicts future technology readiness levels. Defines technology roadmaps. Establishes technical strategy and implementation guidance in the STP (see Chart 35), and Assesses technical standards to determine how they might be incorporated. Forecasts future and potential roles of key standards. Defines needs for new or updated standards. Identifies resources for these needs. 02/26/2020 37 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (32/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (5/8) Enterprise Evaluation and Assessment (1/2) Measures progress towards realizing the enterprise [or SoS] vision. Helps o

o o o o Shape the environment Identify risks and opportunities Select among the program, project, and system opportunities Diagnose problems Prescribe appropriate actions. Is means for integrating technical aspects into business decisions. Establishes data collection measurement/metric programs. Performs sensitivity analysis to determine the degree of robustness and agility. Goes beyond traditional system evaluation and assessment practices. 02/26/2020 Abandons comparison of metrics against individual requirements Looks for capabilities instead. 38 See Notes Page

ESE Guidance (33/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (6/8) Enterprise Evaluation and Assessment (2/2) Key characteristics Multi-scale analysis Early and continuous operational involvement Lightweight command and control (C2) capability representations Developmental versions available for assessment Minimal infrastructure Flexible modeling and simulation (M&S), operator-in-the-loop (OITL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) capabilities In-line, continuous performance monitoring and selective forensics. Enterprise Architecture (EA) can be used as a primary modeling tool. Key business decision questions drive EA structure and contents EA models and views contain success measures/metrics and involve o Success factors o Key performance indicators o Information needs. EA can be viewed as o Artifacts developed as views of the enterprise [or SoS] o Activities that create, use, and maintain these artifacts.

02/26/2020 39 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (34/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (7/8) Risk & Opportunity at the Enterprise Scale versus the Systems Scale (White 2006). MITRE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. Unique Tracking #05-1262. 02/26/2020 40 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (35/45) Enterprise Management Process Areas (8/8) Enterprise Architecture and Requirements (1/2) EA includes

Strategic goals and objectives Operators, users, and other stakeholders Organizations Funding sources and methods Policies and practices Processes and procedures Facilities and platforms Infrastructure, and real estate. EA can be used to model/understand the enterprise [or SoS]. Enterprise [or SoS] needs are focused on cross-cutting measures necessary for overall success of Product systems Business processes Inter-organizational commitments Hiring practices Investment directions. See this Notes Page and Charts 96-103 for information on architecture descriptions. 02/26/2020 41

See Notes Page ESE Guidance (36/45) ESE Process Elements Enterprise Architecture and Requirements (2/2) Synthesized ESE [or SoSE] process elements for the enterprise [or SoS] are 1. Strategic Technical Planning 2. Capability-Based Planning Analysis 3. Technology and Standards Planning 4. Enterprise Evaluation and Assessment 5. Opportunity and Risk Assessment and Management 6. Enterprise Architecture and Conceptual Design 7. Enterprise Requirements Definition and Management 8. Program and Project Detailed Design and Implementation 9. Program Integration and Interfaces 10. Program Validation and Verification 11. Portfolio and Program Deployment and Post Deployment 12. Portfolio and Program Life Cycle Support. The first seven of these elements were described in some detail above. The others are more self-evident and are not discussed here. 02/26/2020 42 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (37/45) Enterprise Capabilities Management

There are (at least) three different kinds of capability: organizational capability, system capability, and operational capability. (see Charts 7-8, 10) The enterprise [or SoS] has a current and planned (baseline) operational capability, based Past activities Current plans for change. The capability management function steers the enterprise [or SoS] toward strategic goals and objectives subject to resource constraints and other limitations. 02/26/2020 43 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (38/45) Needs Identification and Assessment (1/2) Key stakeholders have operational enterprise [or SoS] needs that must be identified and assessed in terms of their relevance and relative priorities.

Operational need: Anything in direct support of desired end user activities, e.g., Retail sales Entertainment Food services Business travel Example: Provide transportation services to commuters in Londons metropolitan area. Warfighting! Enterprise [or SoS] operational needs can include 02/26/2020 Eliminating waste

Countering a perceived business or military threat Meeting a government policy goal Doing existing business more efficiently Taking advantage of technological opportunities Meeting new operational needs Replacing obsolete systems Creating integrated enterprises with others. 44 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (39/45) Needs Identification and Assessment (2/2) Enabling assets need: Anything in direct support of internal activities, e.g., Personnel Computing facilities Communication networks Policies and practices Tools and methods Funding and partnerships Equipment and supplies Market forecast Business or product development Manufacturing Service delivery. Enabling assets help achieve targeted performance levels. They are used in enterprise [or SoS] work processes to accomplish work objectives toward desired future states.

The enterprise state (see Chart 18) is a complex web of past, current and future states. Enterprise [or SoS] needs lead to efficient utilization of enterprise [or SoS] assets, i.e., enhance productivity, and find and eliminate waste. Example: Decrease power required for enterprise data center operation. 02/26/2020 45 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (40/45) Capability Identification and Assessment Enterprise [or SoS] capabilities are to meet mission and enterprise [or SoS] needs; how well they do must be assessed. Example of an operational capability: Transport 150,000 passengers per hour among 27 network nodes. A supporting capability might be: Process 200,000 tickets per hour during peak loading. The desired and baseline capabilities are compared to measure and balance gaps and excesses. Map projected gaps and excesses into future timeframes to understand relative timing and intensity of required changes. Use near-term, mid-term, and far-term, e.g., Five, ten, and twenty years One, two and three years. 02/26/2020

46 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (41/45) Enterprise Architecture Formulation and Assessment EA analysis/modeling are used to balance capability gaps and excesses. The baseline EA [or SoS architecture] helps understand the as is and to be states. Comparing needs and gaps helps determine desired improvements. Consider benefit/cost and associated opportunity/risk of each proposed modification. EA supports capability management of 02/26/2020 Strategy Priorities Plans

Resources Activities Locations Facilities Products Services. 47 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (42/45) Operational Identification and Assessment EA helps identify Improvement opportunities with, e.g., Investment of, e.g., o o o o Time Money Facilities Personnel. Divestment of, e.g., o o o

Selling of assets Reducing capacity Canceling projects. Each opportunity can be assessed (in terms of the business case) On own merits. Considering Dependencies/interfaces with other opportunities Current enterprise [or SoS] activities and operations Enterprise's [or SoSs] partners. 02/26/2020 48 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (43/45) Enterprise Portfolio Management Portfolio management techniques may be a propos for a set of opportunities that is large or has complicated (or complex? ) relationships. Portfolio elements could include (separately, or in combination)

02/26/2020 Bids Projects Products Services Technologies Intellectual property. 49 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (44/45) Enterprise Improvement Planning and Execution Opportunity assessment results are incorporated into an enterprise [or SoS] long-term plan. Considering System and organizational capabilities

Funding constraints Legal commitments and obligations Partner arrangements Intellectual property ownership Personnel development and retention Etc. Depending on Nature of the enterprises business environment Technology volatility Market intensity Etc. The plan needs to be aligned with Strategic goals and objectives Leadership priorities. Planned improvements are implemented to include, as appropriate, Suppliers Distributors

Financiers. Performance targets (including those of personnel) must be monitored (using measures/metrics) to ensure progress. The plan is adjusted when unforeseen circumstances/outcomes occur. 02/26/2020 50 See Notes Page ESE Guidance (45/45) Enterprise Capability Change Management Capability management is developing and maintaining the ability to conduct certain activities in the ESE [or SoSE] domain, e.g., Military: Types of missions in a given threat environment Industry: Classes of business products and services Commercial: Product innovation and marketing Government: Public works and infrastructure projects. Changes to enterprise [or SoS] capability should Not jeopardize current operations. Maintain long-term viability. Seven lenses can be used to facilitate change management.

02/26/2020 Strategic objectives Stakeholders Processes Performance metrics Current state alignment Resources Maturity assessment. (Nightingale and Srinivasan 2011) 51 Break 2: Thats the end of the ESE [or SoSE] so-called guidance. Before we continue, please post online what questions or comments might you have. The next series of charts will relate to Checklands Soft System Methodology 02/26/2020


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    Afghanistan War (1978-1992) The War in Afghanistan refers to the intervention by NATO and allied forces in the ongoing Afghan civil war. The war followed the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in an effort to dismantle al-Qaeda and eliminate...
  • Acids and Bases

    Acids and Bases

    Calculate the pH of the wine on these two occasions. ... Molecular Structure and Oxoacid Strength. 1. Oxoacids having different central atoms (Z) that . are from the same group. ... Lewis acid. is a substance that can accept a...