Uniform Circular Motion UCM motion in a circle of a constant radius at a constant speed Like projectile motion, its a combo of 2 separate causes: an attempt at constant speed in a straight line (well learn v is always tangent to the circle) so thats like PMs horizontal v with a centripetal force acting like PMs Fg Centripetal Force any (combination of) force(s)
that make(s) an object move in a circle. While a in linear motion is due to changing speed, a in circular motion is due to changing direction. Uniform Circular Motion Recall a time that youve moved in a turn or circlewhat is it that you feel? Like youre being thrown out of the circle! That feeling is referred to as centrifugal force but its just a feeling, not a real force its an example of a fictitious force...
Aside: Fictitious Forces They arise any time an object is accelerated in any non-inertial frame of reference. Like our heads feel thrown forward when a car stops suddenly or pushed back when the car starts out There is no force making the head move like thatWhen accelerating in a car, our head is simply trying to maintain its state of motion in a noninertia reference frame. (So N1stL doesnt apply!) So in UCM, our body feels like its being thrown out,
but really it isnt theres no outward force! But since the feeling can last as long as we are turning or moving in a circle, we gave it a name: centrifugal (center fleeing) force. So if the centrifugal (outward) force is not real, why does an object released from a circular path, fly off? It does, but NOT straight out from the center! It flies off tangent to the circular path! Without the centripetal (inward) force to keep it
moving in a circle, it gets to do what its been trying to do all along move in a straight line, tangent to the circle. (back to) Uniform Circular Motion An object making a turn is changing its direction, which means, even if its traveling at a constant speed, its velocity is changing,
which means its accelerating, which means, according to N2ndL, there must be a net force acting on it, in the direction its accelerating. Uniform Circular Motion So then what if it doesnt just make a single turn, but keeps turning continually?
Then that should result in the object moving in a circle as a circle requires a constant rate of change of direction. And that means its got a constant acceleration. And that means its got to have a constant net force acting on it to cause that. Uniform Circular Motion But constant acceleration and constant net force insinuate that both should have a constant value in a constant direction
How could that be possible when the object itself has a velocity that is constantly changing direction??? Recall, physics has never claimed that an objects velocity is in the same direction as its acceleration What it does state, is that an objects change in velocity is always in the same direction as its acceleration, as well as the net force that causes that acceleration.
So what is the direction of v? As is turns out, its directly along the radius, pointed toward the center of the circle. So acceleration must be too! called radial: aR or centripetal (center-seeking): aC Math of Uniform Circular Motion 1st, lets define 2 new terms: period (T) the time it takes an object to complete one full cycle of its repetitive motion;
units: sec frequency (f) the number of full cycles an object can complete with a second; units: 1/sec = hertz (Hz) or rpm Ex: pendulum bob swinging back & forth (p296) So mathematically, period & frequency are reciprocals of each other: T = 1/f or f = 1/T Now, as derived on p 107 in your textbook, aC = v2/r
(mag only!) where v is the linear speed of the object as it travels in the circle and r is the radius of the circle Does the equation make sense? As the object goes faster around the circle, it has to change direction faster, so that should make aC be larger (directly proportional actually power) And if the size of the circle it travels around is larger, it doesnt have to change direction as
quickly, so that should make aC be smaller (inversely proportional) Math of Uniform Circular Motion If v in aC = v2/r is the linear speed of the object as it travels in the circle, Recall linear speed: v = x/t, But for an object going in a circle, x can be the circumference 2r t can be the period of that trip T So now v = 2r/T
or v = 2rf Math of Uniform Circular Motion And now apply N2ndL: F = ma to UCM, and we get: FC = maC = mv2/r, _____ where FC is the Centripetal Force
the (vector sum of all the) force(s) that makes an object move in a circle following v and aC, its direction is always toward the center of the circle its what makes objects feel like theyre being thrown radially outward, as they try to go tangent, following N1st L! Centripetal force (Fc) is not a new force, its simply the label we give to any force that makes an object move in a circle. (Sort of the
way Fnet worked.) Examples of objects under the influence of a Fc: 1.Anything in orbit: Fc from FG 2.Electrons around nucleus: Fc from Fe (electric) 3.Object on Nearly Horizontal String: Fc from FT 4. Object on Angled String Ex: The Wave Swinger is larger, so need to find components
of FT Fc from FTll. Note, they arent push outward! At the start of the ride, they move along a tangential path, away from the center, until tension increases its horizontal component enough to then acts as the Fc to move the rider in a circle. Cool! 5. An Object on a Level Surface Examples: spin masses on pink lazy-susan child on playground merry-go-round
Fc from Ffs between object and surface So what happens when an object doesnt or cant make it around the turn or a circle? Is it being moved out by centrifugal force? No! No such thing! Theres simply not enough Fc present to maintain the circular path, so the object begins to move tangent to the circle, or perhaps just spiraling outward into a larger radius circle that requires less FC to maintain.
Another example: Car turning on level road Fc from Ffs between road & tires FBD front view: FBD top view: And what if the car doesnt make the turn; if it skids off the road? Since Fc is from Ffs, there
just may not be enough Ffs, if its icy, snow covered or even just wet. Or, since Fc = Ffs = mv2/r, then less of Fc is needed for lower speeds larger radii Ex: reason for lower speed limits on highway exit ramps Or, if it cant be done with low (Here to space PPHO4Notes correctly)
6. Object on an Inclined Surface Ex: the banked curve For every , there is one speed, vcrit, at which no Ff is required to maintain the cars position, For this critical case, Fc from ll component of FN Otherwise, the direction of Ff depends your speed: If v > vcrit,
then Ff acts down the incline If v < vcrit, then Ff acts up the incline And either way Fc = FNll + Ffll 7. Object on a Vertical Surface, in a Horizontal Circle
Example: the Rotor Fc from FN by wall Another Example: Clothes in spin cycle Fc from FN by inner wall But what about the water during the spin cycle? Water drops separate from clothes thru holes in washer drum during spin cycle. Does it go radial outward? No tangential outward!
Another (maybe not so) crazy application of this: Simulated gravity space stations! Fc from FN of the floor (inner surface of outside wall) up on the bottom of your feet Centrifugation A practical application aka Artificial Sedimentation:
When a non uniform substance is rotated in horizontal UCM at high speeds (up to 104 rpm!) using a centrifuge, the varying densities of the particles in the substance are easily separated from each other as each particular density (think mass) material finds its appropriate radius of spin for the particular Fc, provided by the viscosity of the rest of the substance acting upon it. Centrifugation Also, the heaviest particles eventually make it to the bottom of the tube, since the resistance of the rest of the
substance does not provide enough Fc to move them in a circle, so they move tangent until they reach the bottom of the test tube, which then provides the necessary Fc to push on them toward the center. Centrifugation Famous Human Centrifuge Located at Johnsville Naval Base in Warmister, Pa Used from 1950 1996 To test, train, experiment with military pilots and astronauts, as well as instrumentation & equipment
Could produce up to 40 gs of acceleration! For the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo astronauts, the wheel was both a rite of passage and an invaluable training tool. Whirling around at the end of that long arm, I was acting as a guinea pig for what a human being might encounter being launched into space or reentering the atmosphere, Glenn recalled in John Glenn: A Memoir. You were straining every muscle of your body to the
maximumif you even thought of easing up, your vision would narrow like a set of blinders and youd start to black out. What about Vertical Circular Motion: Note: If an object is being moved in a vert circle by a non-rigid body (ex rope), to be considered UCM, the Fc must be >> Fg.
A Ferris Wheel, The Volcano The Round Up Do you feel heavier at the bottom or at the top? Why? 8. The Vertical Circle: Fc from more than one force Bottom: Fc = FN/T + Fg , where Fg pulling down & out of the circle, so FN/T has to be large! Top: Fc = FN/T + Fg , where Fg now pulling down &
into the circle, so FN/T can be small even 0! Ex: The Laser Loop So what if they build it without the top section of track? Would you ride it?? Non-Uniform Circular Motion Not all circular motion is uniform if an object speeds up or slows down, while traveling in a circle, then it will have to have an acceleration acting
tangent to the circle, as well as one acting toward the center, to cause this. Where the resultant acceleration is the vector sum of these 2 & is no longer acting toward the center.
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