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Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science SCS502 HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE in a Christian perspective Prof. Paul Yang( ), Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science [ & ] Introduction , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected]

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Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] A.N. W)hitehead (1861-1947) " , A. Benz .

, . < > (Issues in Science and Religion) (Ian Barbour, 1923 -), < >(Iss ues in Science and Rel igion) .("has beehas bee n credited with literall y creating the contem porary field of science and religion."has bee) - PBS Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 1

, Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] John W)illiam Draper(18111882) ( UPenn School o f Medicine) (New York U.) , , ,

(187 4) - . ; , . Andrew Dickson W)hite(18321918) , 1869 (The Bat

tle-Fields of Science): (18 96) , [ ] , , (wor d) .

Carl Edward Sagan(1 9341996) , . (Cornell U) (Laboratory f or Planetary Studies) 600 , , 20 (Search for Extra-Terrestrial I ntelligence, SETI) Edward Osborne W)ilson(1929-)

, , . . (Scientific Humanis m) . 2003 (Humanist Manifesto)

Steven W)einberg, Daniel Dennet, Richard Dawkins, Francis Crick, Peter Atkins Arthur Eddington, (18821944) 7cm , 7cm Barbour:

. -> . Hovind(1953-) Dinosaur Adventure Land] P. Johnson(1940-), M. Behe(1952-), W). De mbski(1960-)] Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 2 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected]

[Karl Barth(1886-1968), Emil Brunner(18 99-1966)] Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 3 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] 2 : , . , .

Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 4 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] . , Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 1 5

, Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] (John Haught) (Ted Peters) (W)illem Drees) (W)entzel van Hyussteen) Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2 1 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected]

? ? ( 1:28;2:15) vs. ( 28:18-20, 1: 8) ?

? ( 25:2) ( 2:15) ( 1:28) , ( 1:31, 4:8) F. W)oehler, J. von Liebig,

, F. Woehler , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Friedrich_woehler.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13). J. von Liebig, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Justus_von_Liebig_um_1850_001.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13). , http://www.nocutnews.co.kr/show.asp?idx=464264 (accessed 2011.01.13). F. W)oehler J. von Liebig , , ,

( , , , , , ) : :

, , ( ) (Nature as Creation) (Finiteness of nature)

, ( ) , (integrity), , , , , ,

Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2 2 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] - (science, W)issenschaft) ( , ) (scholarship & Learning) 2 ( , , , , )

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- , , - - , GPS , , ,

, => => ) ? W)hy? (Christian)

, ?

? Platon, . Francis Bacon, . ( )

, , , (alienation) ( ) ,

But, ( , , ) , but Thomas Aquinas

Scholaticism ' ' ()) (schola) ' ' , 9 15 . . , . ,

. . , , 16 ,

(1543-1687) 1543, < > 1687, < > God as watchmaker (Deism) 18

19 , N. Copernicus Sir Isaac Newton , Nicolaus Copernicus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13) Sir Isaac Newton, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13) Principia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Newton_-_Principia_(1687),_title,_p._5,_color.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13

, , Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte, 1798-1857 , (Savoir pour pr evoir, prevoir pour gouverner) , , Auguste Comte, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Auguste_Comte.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13

Charles Darwin Herbert Spencer Karl H. Marx ,

, , ? ( , , )

W)illiam James Friedrich Schleiermacher . , , ,

, . Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2

3 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] ( ) ( Robert Merton, R. Hooykaas ) , , ( 1:28) ( 2:15)

( A. Comte, Voltaire ) ( 4:16-17) ( 4:20 -22) ,

Paul Tillich ; .

(fragmentation) ( ) ( ) ?

Edmund Husserl Alfred N. W)hitehead (chance philosoph y) ( ) , Dessaur

Romano Guardini

, , ? ( )

? Q. . ? Q. ? Q. . ? Q. ? Space Telescope)

(Hubble (coherent) , Herman Dooyeweerd 15

( , , , , , ) Rene Descartes But, ( ) Henri Bergson, W)illiam James

. .

, , , Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2 4 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] A A B A B .

(reproducibility) (1561-1626) , , , , , , 400 ,

But , , ,

-> , , . ?

A A B A B . . ( Karl R. Popper) . (Verification) (Falsification) Norwood R. Hanson, < > (Theoryladen Observation)

Sir Karl Popper(1902-1994) Norwood Russel Hanson(1924-1967) ( ) (2000 ) / Imre Lakatos, 1922-1974 ,

, (Research Program) (progressive) , (degenerating) Imre Lakatos Imre Lakatos, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lakatos_2.jpg (accessed 2011.01.13 Imre Lakatos(1922-1974)

, , (paradigm) Crisis Normal Science

Pre-science (a nomaly) Thosmas S. Kuhn, 1922-1996 (attributed to HILOBROW) Revolution ( ) Thomas S. Kuhn, http://hilobrow.com/2009/07/18/hilo-hero-thomas-kuhn/ (accessed 2011.01.1

Paul Feyerabend, 1924-1994 < >(Against Method, 1976) (Anything goes!)) (Epistemological Anarchism) Paul Feyerabend (attributed to Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PKF_2.jpg

(accessed 2011.01.13) -< > , (Motive Value), (Process Value), (Applica tion Value) , , , ,

Fritjof Capra Fritiof Capra(1939-) UC Berkeley , Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2 5 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected]

Del Ratasch ? ?

( ) ? .(No belief without evidence.) ? ( ) . (incompleteness)

Thomas Kuhn . Cf. ? .

? ? ? Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 2 6 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected]

16, 17 (Neo-Platonism) (planned), (directed), (designed) (reasons), (i deas), (plans), (thoughts), (patterns), (design) 18, 19 (Natural Theology)

Michael Behe, < >(Darwins Black Bo x) . Richard Dawkins, < >(The Blind W)atchmake Michael Behe r) . .

Michael Behe, http://www.worldmag.com/articles/13143/ (accessed 2011.01.13) Darwins Black Box cover, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Darwinsblackbox.jpg Richard Dawkins, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_dawkins_lecture.jpg The Blind Watchmaker cover, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Blind_Watchmaker.jpg Richard Dawkins (attributed to Matthias Asgeirsso) (Artifacts) (flow) (counterflow)

(Design) (Agent Activity) - - (Gaps) (normal casual flow) (counterflow) (artificiality), (counterflow) (marks)

?

( Ratzsch) But, ?

But, ( ) But, Paul Davis, , ... . ? ? (God-of-the-Ga ps)

But, 1) 2) 3) 4) ( ) But, ,

(Intelligent Design) 1990 (ID) 18-19 ID Phillip Johnson, ID W)illiam Dembski( , Ph.D, ), Mic hael Behe( ), Michael Denton( ), Jonath an W)ells( ),

Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 3 1 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] 16,7 ?

, ? ? , ? , ? John W)illiam Draper, 1811-1882 Biography 1832, , ,

< John W)illiam Draper > (1874) revealed doctrine human sciences 4 (cordial union) John William Draper, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_William_Draper.jpg (accessed 2011.01.14)

Andrew Dickson W)hite, 1832-1918 Biography , Cornell Andrew Dickson White < >(1896)

(battles) ( ) - , - . . , , . 1869-1896 (all-out war) Bertrand Russell, 1872-1970 , Bertrand Russell < >(Religion and Science, 1935)

But, Bertrand Russell, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honourable_Bertrand_Russell (accessed 2011.01.14) Robert K. Merton, 1910-2003 Robert K. Merton Columbia University Press

(point-to-point correlation) (rationalism) (empiricism) 17 (Royal Society of Lond on) Robert K. Merton, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_K_Merton.jpg (accessed 2011.01.14) Reijer Hooykaas, 1906-1994

Reijer Hooykaas Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Stanley L. Jaki, 1924-2009 ? UC-Berkeley John Heilbron

Stanley L. Jaki (attributed to Antonio G. Colombo) 6 , , . Reijer Hooykaas, http://www.few.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/algemene-vorming/geschiedenis/index.asp (accessed 2011.01.14) Stanley L. Jaki, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Father_Jaki_June_2007.jpg (accessed 2011.01.14) John H. Brooke

1950 , & (David C. Lindberg & Ronald L. Numbers) God & Nature, http://www.betterworldbooks.co.uk/god-and-nature-id-0520056922.aspx (accessed 2011.01.14) When Science & Christianity Meet, http://www.betterworldbooks.co.uk/when-science-christianity-meet-id-0226482162.aspx (accessed 2011.01.14) . - - .

(travesty) . ; , . workable peace . - < > 18 (detente) 1 859 < > Owen Chadwick

James R. Moore Frank Turner Neal C. Gillespie 19 (episteme) < >(1979) 19

, Frank M. Turner (authority and prestige) Margaret C. Jacob 17 -

,

Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 3 2 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] , , , BC 3

(Acrostic) : , 119 , ,

( 1:5) ( 1:11f; 21f; 24f) ( 38:33; 19:4ff)) ( 38:8-11; 104:9; 8:29; 5:22) , , , ( 28:25f; 38:24f; 148:8)

Jesus ben Sirach, BC 2C Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 3 3 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] ?

Draper W)hite ?

Tertullian Tertullian ? But,

Athenagoras , Clement , , Origen Tertullian, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tertullian.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15) 42

. . . Arnobius of Sicca (Sicca) - Eusebius of Caesarea, c.260-c.340

(phusis) , , , St. Clement of Rome 10 < >(Recognitions, 211231 )

Gregory of Nazianzus, 329-389 ( ) , Gregory of Nazianzus

, , Basil of Caesarea, c.330-379 370, (Caesarea in Cappadocia) (Creationist Tradition) 1 11 , (impetus) (momentum) 1:24 Gregory of Nazianzus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gregor-Chora.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15)

Augustine of Hippo, 354-430 386 , 395 (Hippo) Augustine of Hippo

( , , ) , -< > But, (Stoicism) (Neo-Platonism) (divine world soul) 17 Augustine of Hippo, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_Augustine_by_Philippe_de_Champaigne.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15) , , ( ) . .

.(Unless you believe, you wil l not understand.) BC7-3 BC2-AD2 ? ?

4 (313) , , , , 1

: : , ,

BC 3 - BC 2 , Artapanus Eupolemus ( ) (Enoch) , ,

Aristobulus of Paneas ( ) (unity) (Books ( ) , , ( ) (Book of Enoch)

of Baruch) , (Ecclesiasticus) Jesus ben Sirach But, 2-3 "has bee

Justin Martyr Justin Martyr (seminal W)ord, logos spermatikos) (Logos) , Clement Clement of Rome of Alexandria,

Origen, Justin Martyr, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Justin_Martyr.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15) Thales, Anximandros, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Empedocles (the apostolic rule of faith, )

Irenaeus Tertullian (anti-intellec tualism) < > 6 Basil of Caesarea < >(Hexaemeron, W)ork of Six Days)

17 , < > (Hexaemeral Tradition) 18, 19 ,

(the creationist tradition of Christi anity) (Comprehensibility of the world) (Unity of heaven and earth) (Relative autonomy of nature) (Ministry of healing and restoration) < >

Clement of Rome, Origen, Pseudo-Silvanus, Tertull ian, Lactantius, Athanasius, two Gregories, Basil < >

5 , cosmos < >

Basil of Caesarea Tatian & Athenagoras(2C) Aristoteles , . Origen But, 2 Tertullian & Lactantius Athanasius(4C) ( 1:3; 1:17) John Philoponos(6C)

Aristoteles unity Lectures on History & Philosophy of Science 3 4 , Ph.D. (VIEW)) [email protected] (Handmaiden to Theology, p hilosophia ancilla theologiae) Augustine (Holiness) (Spirituality)

, , (poverty), (chastity), (obedien ce) : 11-12 ,

, , (cathedral) .

12 , , , . ? 1158, (University of Bologna) 1200, 1220, (Faculty of Arts) , , , ,

Roger Bacon, 1214/1220-1292 1240, Roger Bacon

(attributed to Michael Reeve) (Treatise) - (vain curiosity) Roger Bacon, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roger-bacon-statue.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15) , .

. . 1210, 1215 1270, 1277 Condemn ation

, , , (Larger W)ork) [ ] . handmaid en status

,

-Basil (Comprehensibility of the world) (Unity of heaven and earth) 1. 2.

(Finite world,) 3. . (Inanimate heavens) 4. 5. Basil Origen 553 , 2 (Relative autonomy of nature)

Boethius 3 (trivium, , , ) 4 (quadrivium, , , , ) 4 : ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) : ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) Euclid, Nichomachus, Ptolemy Platon, Aristoteles

Cassiodorus (Calabria) arts & sci ences ( ), ( ) Boniface Anglo-Saxon Benedictine 60 , Rabanus Maurus, d 856

Alcuin of York(d 804) Venerable Bede(c 672-735) Gerbert d'Aurillac, ca 955-1003 Rheims , Sylvester II Silvester II Hindu-Arabic numerals Greco-Arabic Silvester II, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Silvester_II.JPG (accessed 2011.01.15)

4,5 , 13 13 - , -

Siger of Brabant ( ) Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas , Eti enne Tempier 1270, 1277 Albert the Great(d 1280) , Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure, d 1274

, ? ( ) ( ) ( ) Peter Lombard(d c 1160) God, creatures, the W)ork of Christ,

the sacraments and last things Philo Judaeus (1C), Clement of Alexandria,

Peter Damian(1007-1072), Hugh of Saint-Victor(d. 1141), Bonaventure , (1) , (2) 8:6-9 (dominion) 11,12 , , ( )

( ) , , , 12 Peter Damian

Honorius W)illiam of Autun(fl. 1122) of Conches(ca.1080-ca.1154) ,

1260 1270 (Siger of Brabant, Boethius of Dacia) arts masters Thomas Aquinas But, ,

(Condemnations) 21 Etienne Tempier 1270 13 1277 219 219

, 14 219 21 < (chance)> (nece ssity) . . 34 < (the first cause)>( , ) . 35 . 48 ( ) . 49 ( , ) . . 141 (di mension) .

147 < > - < > . 152 . 153 . 154 . 90 ( , ) . .

(Prime Mover) 1 (First Cause) 2 1 13C -14C , ( sphere-mover) Nicole Oresme(d 1382) ( ) ,

Henry of Langenstein(d 1397) . Oresme clockmaker . Nicholas of Cusa , , - , ,

11C -12C , (potentia ordinata) (potentian absoluta) 13C , 14C, (weight-driven clock) .

( ) Henry of Ghent (d 1293), Richard of Middleton (fl. c 129 4), W)illiam of Ockham (d c 1293), John Buridan (d c 136 0), Nicole Oresme (d 1382), Henry of Langenstein (d 13 97), Nicholas of Cusa(d 1464)

( , Nominalism) 11,12C, Roscellinus Abelard W)illiam of Ockham, (substance) 1

W)illiam of Ockham, ca.1285-1349 (radical empiricism) (Ockham's Razor) W)illiam of Ockham (attributed to Moscarkop) Nicole Oresme, ca.1320-1382 , ,

William of Ockham, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_of_Ockham.png (accessed 2011.01.15) 13 Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Newton 1277

, (arts master) (Cosmic Legislator) (Renaissance)

(Renaissance) (14-16C) , renaissance, rina scenza, rinasciment o , , , Francesco Petrarca,

1304-1374 : : 14C -15C, (Renaissance) Jules Michelet, 1798-1874 Jacob Burckhardt, 1818-

1897 , ( ) < >(1860) Jacob Burckhardt(1892) Jacob Burckhardt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacburc2.gif (accessed 2011.01.15) The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Die_Kultur_der_Renaissance_in_Italien_.jpg (accessed 2011.01.15) (Renaissance)

(Metaphysics) (Humanism) (Mechanism and Materialism) (Animism)

(Hermeticism)

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