Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Motivation
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Motivation Notes from class textbook: Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, & Applications. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall. Motivation Defined Derived from Latin verb movere (to move)
Common-sense: Something that gets us going, keeps us moving, helps us get jobs done. Formal Definition: the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained. Process Process rather than product Do not observe directly
but rather infer it from behaviors: choice of tasks effort persistence verbalizations Goals Provide impetus for & direction to action Cognitive views
emphasize importance of goals Give individual something to attain or avoid Requires Activity Physical -- effort, persistence, & other overt actions Mental -- planning, rehearsing, organizing,
monitoring, making decisions, solving problems, assessing progress Geared toward goal attainment Instigated and Sustained Starting toward a goal is important Involves making a commitment to change
Taking a first step Motivational processes critically important to sustaining action Many goals are longterm How one responds to difficulties, problems, failures, and setbacks encountered
What is a Theory? A scientifically acceptable set of principles advanced to explain a phenomenon Provides a framework for interpreting environmental observation Helps link research and education Enables us to organize research findings around a common reference point What are Hypotheses? Are assumptions that
can be empirically tested State what conditions ought to accompany or follow other variables Motivation Research Paradigms Type Qualities
Correlational Examines relations that exist between variables Experimental One or more variables are altered & their effects on other variables are assessed
Motivation Research Paradigms Type Qualitative Qualities Concerned with intensive description & interpretation of meanings Project conducted setting Laboratory
Field Project conducted where participants typically go to school, learn, work, and so on Indices of Motivation Choice of tasks -- selecting task under freechoice Effort -- high effort, even on difficult material Persistence -- working for longer time, even when obstacles encountered
Achievement -- choice, effort, & persistence raise task achievement (indirect) Assessing Motivation Direct observations Ratings by others Self-reports
Questionnaires Interviews Stimulated recalls Think-alouds Dialogues We dont need no education!
Times New Roman Book Antiqua Arial Monotype Sorts Sidefade Insolation and the Earth's Surface Slide 2 Slide 3 Angle of Insolation Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Absorption of insolation (cont): Rates of Temperature Change Slide...
Planetary Ring Systems 4/4 Giant Worlds Have Rings Jupiter: broad, dark, fine particles Saturn: broad, bright, complex, icy particles Uranus - narrow, dark, fine particles Neptune: uneven, fine particles All consist of independently orbiting small chunks of material within very...
Main group elements are in the s-block and the p-block. The electron configurations of these are regular and consistent. The elements in each group have the same number of valence electrons. Elements in Group 1 are called alkali metals. These...
Primary genera of microorganisms - as meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus sp. Micrococcus sp., Pediococcus sp., yeasts and moulds,. Micrococci are added for their nitrate reduction and catalase activity which help in the development of colour in the meat product.....
AN INFORMATION TSUNAMI Unlike a few years ago, we are now confronted with a tsunami of information on virtually every topic Understanding and interpreting environmental information is an important first step in making positive, creative change towards sustainability.