Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Motivation

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Motivation

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Motivation Notes from class textbook: Pintrich, P.R., & Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, & Applications. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall. Motivation Defined Derived from Latin verb movere (to move)

Common-sense: Something that gets us going, keeps us moving, helps us get jobs done. Formal Definition: the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained. Process Process rather than product Do not observe directly

but rather infer it from behaviors: choice of tasks effort persistence verbalizations Goals Provide impetus for & direction to action Cognitive views

emphasize importance of goals Give individual something to attain or avoid Requires Activity Physical -- effort, persistence, & other overt actions Mental -- planning, rehearsing, organizing,

monitoring, making decisions, solving problems, assessing progress Geared toward goal attainment Instigated and Sustained Starting toward a goal is important Involves making a commitment to change

Taking a first step Motivational processes critically important to sustaining action Many goals are longterm How one responds to difficulties, problems, failures, and setbacks encountered

What is a Theory? A scientifically acceptable set of principles advanced to explain a phenomenon Provides a framework for interpreting environmental observation Helps link research and education Enables us to organize research findings around a common reference point What are Hypotheses? Are assumptions that

can be empirically tested State what conditions ought to accompany or follow other variables Motivation Research Paradigms Type Qualities

Correlational Examines relations that exist between variables Experimental One or more variables are altered & their effects on other variables are assessed

Motivation Research Paradigms Type Qualitative Qualities Concerned with intensive description & interpretation of meanings Project conducted setting Laboratory

Field Project conducted where participants typically go to school, learn, work, and so on Indices of Motivation Choice of tasks -- selecting task under freechoice Effort -- high effort, even on difficult material Persistence -- working for longer time, even when obstacles encountered

Achievement -- choice, effort, & persistence raise task achievement (indirect) Assessing Motivation Direct observations Ratings by others Self-reports

Questionnaires Interviews Stimulated recalls Think-alouds Dialogues We dont need no education!

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