Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 4 Lexical and Syntax Analysis Chapter 4 Topics Introduction Lexical Analysis The Parsing Problem

Recursive-Descent Parsing Bottom-Up Parsing Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-2 Introduction Language implementation systems must analyze source code, regardless of the specific implementation approach Nearly all syntax analysis is based on a formal description of the syntax of the source language (BNF)

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-3 Syntax Analysis The syntax analysis portion of a language processor nearly always consists of two parts: A low-level part called a lexical analyzer (mathematically, a finite automaton based on a regular grammar) A high-level part called a syntax analyzer, or parser (mathematically, a push-down automaton based on a context-free grammar, or BNF)

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-4 Advantages of Using BNF to Describe Syntax Provides a clear and concise syntax description The parser can be based directly on the BNF Parsers based on BNF are easy to maintain Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

1-5 Reasons to Separate Lexical and Syntax Analysis Simplicity - less complex approaches can be used for lexical analysis; separating them simplifies the parser Efficiency - separation allows optimization of the lexical analyzer Portability - parts of the lexical analyzer may not be portable, but the parser always is portable Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

1-6 Lexical Analysis A lexical analyzer is a pattern matcher for character strings A lexical analyzer is a front-end for the parser Identifies substrings of the source program that belong together - lexemes Lexemes match a character pattern, which is associated with a lexical category called a token sum is a lexeme; its token may be IDENT Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

1-7 Lexical Analysis (continued) The lexical analyzer is usually a function that is called by the parser when it needs the next token Three approaches to building a lexical analyzer: Write a formal description of the tokens and use a software tool that constructs a table-driven lexical analyzer from such a description Design a state diagram that describes the tokens and write a program that implements the state diagram

Design a state diagram that describes the tokens and hand-construct a table-driven implementation of the state diagram Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-8 State Diagram Design A nave state diagram would have a transition from every state on every character in the source language - such a diagram would be very large! Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

1-9 Lexical Analysis (continued) In many cases, transitions can be combined to simplify the state diagram When recognizing an identifier, all uppercase and lowercase letters are equivalent Use a character class that includes all letters When recognizing an integer literal, all digits are equivalent - use a digit class

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-10 Lexical Analysis (continued) Reserved words and identifiers can be recognized together (rather than having a part of the diagram for each reserved word) Use a table lookup to determine whether a possible identifier is in fact a reserved word

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-11 Lexical Analysis (continued) Convenient utility subprograms: getChar - gets the next character of input, puts it in nextChar, determines its class and puts the class in charClass addChar - puts the character from nextChar into the place the lexeme is being

accumulated, lexeme lookup - determines whether the string in lexeme is a reserved word (returns a code) Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-12 State Diagram Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-13 The Parsing Problem

Goals of the parser, given an input program: Find all syntax errors; for each, produce an appropriate diagnostic message and recover quickly Produce the parse tree, or at least a trace of the parse tree, for the program Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-14 The Parsing Problem (continued)

Two categories of parsers Top down - produce the parse tree, beginning at the root Order is that of a leftmost derivation Traces or builds the parse tree in preorder Bottom up - produce the parse tree, beginning at the leaves Order is that of the reverse of a rightmost derivation Useful parsers look only one token ahead in the input Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

1-15 The Parsing Problem (continued) Top-down Parsers Given a sentential form, xA , the parser must choose the correct A-rule to get the next sentential form in the leftmost derivation, using only the first token produced by A The most common top-down parsing algorithms:

Recursive descent - a coded implementation LL parsers - table driven implementation Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-16 The Parsing Problem (continued) Bottom-up parsers Given a right sentential form, , determine what substring of is the right-hand side of the rule in the grammar that must be reduced

to produce the previous sentential form in the right derivation The most common bottom-up parsing algorithms are in the LR family Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-17 The Parsing Problem (continued) The Complexity of Parsing Parsers that work for any unambiguous

grammar are complex and inefficient ( O(n3), where n is the length of the input ) Compilers use parsers that only work for a subset of all unambiguous grammars, but do it in linear time ( O(n), where n is the length of the input ) Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-18 Recursive-Descent Parsing There is a subprogram for each nonterminal in the grammar, which can parse sentences that can be generated by

that nonterminal EBNF is ideally suited for being the basis for a recursive-descent parser, because EBNF minimizes the number of nonterminals Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-19 Recursive-Descent Parsing (continued) A grammar for simple expressions: {(+ | -) }

{(* | /) } id | int_constant | ( ) Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-20 Recursive-Descent Parsing (continued) Assume we have a lexical analyzer named lex, which puts the next token code in nextToken The coding process when there is only one RHS:

For each terminal symbol in the RHS, compare it with the next input token; if they match, continue, else there is an error For each nonterminal symbol in the RHS, call its associated parsing subprogram Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-21 Recursive-Descent Parsing (continued) This particular routine does not detect errors Convention: Every parsing routine leaves the next token in nextToken

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-22 Recursive-Descent Parsing (continued) A nonterminal that has more than one RHS requires an initial process to determine which RHS it is to parse The correct RHS is chosen on the basis of the next token of input (the lookahead) The next token is compared with the first token that can be generated by each RHS until a match is found

If no match is found, it is a syntax error Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-23 Bottom-up Parsing The parsing problem is finding the correct RHS in a right-sentential form to reduce to get the previous right-sentential form in the derivation Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-24

Bottom-up Parsing (continued) Shift-Reduce Algorithms Reduce is the action of replacing the handle on the top of the parse stack with its corresponding LHS Shift is the action of moving the next token to the top of the parse stack Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-25

Bottom-up Parsing (continued) Advantages of LR parsers: They will work for nearly all grammars that describe programming languages. They work on a larger class of grammars than other bottom-up algorithms, but are as efficient as any other bottom-up parser. They can detect syntax errors as soon as it is possible. The LR class of grammars is a superset of the class parsable by LL parsers.

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-26 Bottom-up Parsing (continued) LR parsers must be constructed with a tool Knuths insight: A bottom-up parser could use the entire history of the parse, up to the current point, to make parsing decisions

There are only a finite and relatively small number of different parse situations that could have occurred, so the history could be stored in a parser state, on the parse stack Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-27 Bottom-up Parsing (continued) LR parsers are table driven, where the table has two components, an ACTION table and a GOTO table

The ACTION table specifies the action of the parser, given the parser state and the next token Rows are state names; columns are terminals The GOTO table specifies which state to put on top of the parse stack after a reduction action is done Rows are state names; columns are nonterminals Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-28 Structure of An LR Parser

Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-29 Bottom-up Parsing (continued) Initial configuration: (S0, a1an$) Parser actions: For a Shift, the next symbol of input is pushed onto the stack, along with the state symbol that is part of the Shift specification in the Action table

For a Reduce, remove the handle from the stack, along with its state symbols. Push the LHS of the rule. Push the state symbol from the GOTO table, using the state symbol just below the new LHS in the stack and the LHS of the new rule as the row and column into the GOTO table Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-30 Bottom-up Parsing (continued) Parser actions (continued):

For an Accept, the parse is complete and no errors were found. For an Error, the parser calls an error-handling routine. Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-31 LR Parsing Table Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-32

Bottom-up Parsing (continued) A parser table can be generated from a given grammar with a tool, e.g., yacc or bison Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-33 Summary Syntax analysis is a common part of language implementation

A lexical analyzer is a pattern matcher that isolates small-scale parts of a program Detects syntax errors Produces a parse tree A recursive-descent parser is an LL parser EBNF Parsing problem for bottom-up parsers: find the substring of current sentential form The LR family of shift-reduce parsers is the most common bottom-up parsing approach Copyright 2012 Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-34

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