Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You What are microorganisms? Too small to be seen with the unaided eye True cellular forms Ubiquitous Both helpful and problematic Scope and Relevance of Microbiology
First living organisms on the planet Live everywhere life is possible Largest component of Earth's biomass Ecosystems depends on their activities Why study microbes? Recycling vital elements Bioremediation Agriculture Biotechnology/ Genetic engineering
Food microbiology Industrial Microbiology Normal microbiota Disease causing microorganisms Common Ancestor Gave rise to 3 Domains
Two prokaryotic Bacteria and Archaea One eukaryotic Eukarya Prokaryotes Asexual; unicellular, no membrane bound organelles Archaea
Not known to be human pathogens Usually found in extreme environments Bacteria
Some pathogenic Multiple morphological and physiological differences from archaea Rod Shaped Bacteria Round Archaea Many Klebisella pneumoniae cells Methanococcus janaschii, with numerous
flagella attached to one side Eukaryotes Unicellular or multicellular Sexual and asexual reproduction Multiple membranous organelles Algae Unicellular or multicellular
Photosynthetic High morphological diversity Not pathogenic Cymatopleura Volvox Macrocystis pyrifera
Gelidium pulchrum Alexandrium tamarense Fungi Unicellular or multicellular Absorb nutrients from their environment Primarily opportunistic pathogens Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Rhizopus Aspergillus flavus Amanita muscaria
Protozoa Unicellular Most are mobile Pseudopods, Flagella, Cilia Absorb nutrients from environment or live as parasites Manyare pathogenic
Many are pathogenic Only some life stages microscopic Taenia taeniformis Necator americanus Viruses
Obligatory intracellular parasite No true cellular organization Living or non-living??? HIV virus on the surface of a
CD4+ cell Bacteriophages Size in the Microbial World History of Microbiology Robert Hooke -1665 Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1673
"animalcules" Schleiden and Schwann1838/39 Cell theory Spontaneous Generation Franscesco Redi 1668
John Needham 1745 Lazzaro Spallanzani - 1765 Rudolf Virchow -1855 Louis Pasteur 1861 Aseptic techniques Golden Age of
Microbiology (1874 1914) Support theories that invisible agents cause disease
Ignaz Semmelweis - 1840 Childbed fever Joseph Lister - 1867 Aseptic surgery John Tyndall Microbes in dust, some heat resistant Germ Theory of Disease
Pasteur Fermentation (1857) and pasteurization (1864) Robert Koch - 1876
Walther Hesse 1882 Vaccination Edward Jenner 1798 Smallpox vaccine
Louis Pasteur 1880 Avirulence Rabies vaccine Chemotherapy 1908, Paul Ehrlich Salvarsan treatment for syphilis 1928, Alexander Fleming Discovered properties of penicillin
1935-36, Gerhard Domagk & Ernest Fourneau Development of sulfa drugs 1940, Selman Waksman Isolated antibiotic from Streptomyces 1940, Howard Florey & Ernest Chain Preformed clinical trials and mass produced penicillin
Problems with modern chemotherapeutics Toxicity Resistance Lack of adequate anti- viral drugs
Infectious disease remains a threat 750 million cases each year in US Emerging diseases Factors associated with emerging disease Microbial evolution
Changing human behavior/lifestyles Complacency of human population Population expansion/global travel
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