Chapter 1 The Study of American Government

Chapter 1 The Study of American Government

Chapter 11 Interest Groups WHO GOVERNS? 1. Do interest groups dominate government, and is any particular lobby politically unbeatable? 2. Why do people join interest groups?

TO WHAT ENDS? 1. Is the proliferation of political action committees (PACs) and other groups good or bad for Americas representative democracy? 2. Should interest groups political activities be restricted by law? Copyright 2013 Cengage

Copyright 2013 Cengage The Rise of Interest Groups An interest group is any organization that seeks to influence public policy. The conditions that lead to the rise of interest groups are

Broad economic developments Government policy Leadership exercised Increased governmental activities Copyright 2013 Cengage

BRIAN SNYDER/Reuters/Landov A woman holds a Tea Party sign at a rally in Concord, New Hampshire. Copyright 2013 Cengage Copyright 2013 Cengage Figure 11.1 What the Top Lobby Spent, 19982010

Source: Center for Public Integrity, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., 2011. Copyright 2013 Cengage Kinds of Organizations

Institutional Interests Membership Interests W. E. B. Du Bois, scholar and activist, was one of the founders of the NAACP. C.M. Battey/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Copyright 2013 Cengage

Getting and Keeping Members Incentives to Join Solidarity Material Purposive Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call Group/Roll Call/Getty Images The Service Employees International Union, a large and

growing force, listens to Andy Stern, its president until 2010. Copyright 2013 Cengage Copyright 2013 Cengage Copyright 2013 Cengage The Influence of the Staff

Some members of an interest group may not care about many of the issues with which the group gets involved. What the interest group does may reflect what the staff wants than what the members believe. Copyright 2013 Cengage

Interest Groups and Social Movements The Environmental Movement The Feminist Movement The Union Movement

The Million Moms March in 2004 demanded a federal ban on assault weapons. Larry Downing/Reuters Copyright 2013 Cengage Funds for Interest Groups

Foundation Grants Federal Grants and Contracts Direct Mail Copyright 2013 Cengage Upper Class Bias?

Do interest groups reflect an upperclass bias? Those most likely to belong to a voluntary association have Higher incomes College degrees Professional or technical jobs

Copyright 2013 Cengage Upper Class Bias? Consider: Do interest groups and lobbyists always get what they want? Are business-oriented groups divided among themselves? Are there profound cleavages of opinion

among the upper class? Copyright 2013 Cengage Farmers once had great influence in Congress and could get their way with a few telephone calls. Today, they often must use mass protest methods.

JP/Laffront/Sygma/Corbis Copyright 2013 Cengage The Activities of Interest Groups

Information Earmarks Public Support Money and PACs The Revolving Door Civil Disobedience Copyright 2013 Cengage Source: Federal Election Committee, Top 50 PACs by Contributions to Candidates and Other Committees,

January 1, 2009December 31, 2009, 2010. Copyright 2013 Cengage Figure 11.2 Political Action Committees (PACs) Copyright 2013 Cengage Tom Williams/CQ-Roll Call Group/Roll Call/Getty Images

Jack Abramoff, convicted of unethical behavior in handling lobbying claims by certain Indian tribes, is sworn in before a congressional committee investigating this. Copyright 2013 Cengage Copyright 2013 Cengage Lawsuits, such as this one against Proposition 8 which banned same sex

marriage in California, are often more effective than protest demonstrations in changing policies. Fred Prouser/Reuters/Landov Copyright 2013 Cengage Regulating Interest Groups

1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1995 Congress unanimously passed lobbying bill Tightened registration and disclosure requirements Broadened definition of a lobbyist

Did not cover grass roots organizations Copyright 2013 Cengage Regulating Interest Groups 2007 New regulations took effect No gifts of any value from registered lobbyists or firms that employ lobbyists No reimbursements for travel costs from registered lobbyist or firms that employ

lobbyists No reimbursement for travel costs, no matter the source, if the trip is in any part organized or requested by a registered lobbyist or firm that employs lobbyists Copyright 2013 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO? MEMORANDUM To: Kathleen Moore, Senate majority leader From: Christopher Franklin, chief of staff

Subject: Full federal financing of presidential campaigns Every presidential election since 1976 has been financed in part by federal funds. Now presidential candidates say they will forego public funding for the general election, given the vastly greater resources available through private fundraising. Congress needs to decide whether elections are a public investment or a political free market for citizens and candidates. Copyright 2013 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

Arguments for: 1. Legal precedents are promising. Federal matching funds already go to presidential primary candidates who have raised at least $5,000, in contributions of $250 or less, in each of twenty states. For the general election, each major party nominee already is eligible for federal funding if he or she agrees to spend no more than that amount. 2. The funding required would be small. Allocating $1 billion out of the public treasury for a presidential election every four years is hardly a fiscal drain on a nearly $2 trillion annual budget. 3. The effects would be pervasive. Candidates and party leaders

would stop covertly courting big donors with phone calls, lunches, and personal visits, and would focus instead on the needs of average citizens. Copyright 2013 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO? Arguments against: 1. Constitutional precedent for requiring political candidates to accept public funds is weak. In Buckley v. Valeo (1976), the Supreme Court upheld limits on campaign contributions for candidates who accept

public money, but it also defined spending money for political purposes as expression protected by the First Amendment, thereby giving individuals the right to raise and spend as much of their own money as they choose, if they forego federal funds. 2. Campaign spending would soon spiral once again. The federal government may not restrict spending by individuals or organizations working independently from the political parties, and federal funds would merely supplement, not supplant, private fund-raising. 3. Less than 10 percent of taxpayers currently supports public financing through voluntary federal income tax checkoffs, and voters likely would view bankrolling elections as serving politicians, not the people.

Copyright 2013 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO? Your decision: Support Legislation? Oppose Legislation? Copyright 2013 Cengage

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Jeopardy - mrjohns2.weebly.com

    Jeopardy - mrjohns2.weebly.com

    Interglobular artery c. Interglobular vein d. Arcuate artery e. Glomerular artery BACK TO GAME ANSWER Topic 4: $500 Answer Question: Microscopic examination of a secretion of the kidney shows a thick-walled vessel with glomeruli scattered in the tissue on one...
  • Controls Interface to Electronics

    Controls Interface to Electronics

    Controls Interface to Electronics Boards Credit-Card PC and Local Control bus Beat Jost Cern EP
  • Values in Contemporary Management: A Primer on Ethical ...

    Values in Contemporary Management: A Primer on Ethical ...

    Values in Contemporary Management: A Primer on Ethical Decision-making for MGT 360 Wayne Smith, Ph.D. Department of Management CSU Northridge [email protected]
  • Module 1: Introduction

    Module 1: Introduction

    Advanced SQL Assertions Triggers Stored Procedures Embedded & Dynamic SQL ODBC & JDBC Assertions An assertion is a predicate expressing a condition that we wish the database always to satisfy. Similar to DDL check constraints, but they can test conditions...
  • Research and Education for the 21st Century

    Research and Education for the 21st Century

    Hybrid RANS-LES. Dynamic. Overset. Established as a research code in late 1980's; now supports numerous internal and external efforts across the speed range. Solves 2D/3D steady and unsteady Euler and RANS equations on node-based mixed element meshes for compressible and...
  • Office of Research Services The Responsible Conduct of

    Office of Research Services The Responsible Conduct of

    Ensures compliance with codes, guidelines and regulations. Provides policy and procedure documents. ... UTAS response to the Code. Appointment of a Research Integrity Coordinator within the Research Integrity & Ethics Unit, Office of Research Services.
  • Rezultati natjecanja 2009./2010.

    Rezultati natjecanja 2009./2010.

    SREDNJA ŠKOLA ZLATAR REZULTATI NATJECANJA 2013./2014. "Fußball in unserem Leben" SŠ ZLATAR Natječaj koji je raspisao Goethe-Institut Kroatienu povodom Svjetskog nogometnog prvenstva u Brazilu.
  • Interval, circle graphs and circle graph recognition using

    Interval, circle graphs and circle graph recognition using

    This is an undirected graph whose vertices can be associated with chords of a circle such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding chords cross each other. The chromatic number of a circle graph is the...