Chapter 21 A New Era Begins Lesson 1 End of the Cold War Perestroika and Glasnost A group of reformers emerged within the Communist Party to try to reverse the Soviet Unions decline. Among them was Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev became party leader in 1985 and introduced a series of radical reforms.
Economic reforms were based on perestroika, a fundamental restructuring of the Soviet economy. o Gorbachev envisioned a market economy better geared to the interests of consumers. Political reforms were based on glasnost, a policy permitting the open discussion of political and social issues. o Gorbachev created a new parliament with elected members and a new state presidency. Fall of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was a nation of great diversity.
o 15 separate republics o 92 ethnic groups, 112 languages As Gorbachev eased strict Communist control, old ethnic tensions reappeared, fueling nationalist independence movements. Conservative Soviet leaders arrested Gorbachev in an attempt to restore order. The coup failed when Boris Yeltsin and thousands of Russians resisted the rebel forces. Individual republics moved quickly to vote for independence. In 1991, the Soviet Union broke up into 15 independent states.
Fall of the Soviet Union In his resignation speech, Gorbachev summarized the reasons for the fall of the Soviet Union, emphasizing the failure of the Communist economic system and the burden of the arms race. Russia Under Yeltsin Boris Yeltsin gained widespread popular support in 1991, when he led the resistance against Soviet
leaders who had attempted to seize power. As president of the Russian Republic, Yeltsin was committed to building a free market economy. Yet he faced many difficulties. o Economic hardships o Social disarray o Rise in organized crime Russia Under Yeltsin Another problem was unrest in the Russian province of Chechnya.
Many Chechens wanted to secede from Russia and become independent. Yeltsin used brutal force against the Chechens to crush the rebellion. Yeltsin resigned unexpectedly at the end of 1999. Russia Under Putin Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer, was elected president in 2000. Putin launched a series of reforms to boost growth. o More freedom to sell and buy land o Tax cuts
Putins reforms led to rapid economic expansion, much of it due to oil and gas exports. In international affairs, Putin took a more assertive role with world leaders. o He also vowed to restore Russian authority in Chechnya, where fighting continued. Unable to run again for president, Putin became prime minister in 2008, sharing power with President Dmitry Medvedev. Chapter 21 Lesson 2
Western Europe and North America Changes in Western Europe A 1992 treaty, which went into effect in 1993, turned the European Community (EC) into the European Union (EU). o A common currency, the euro, was used in 16 EU nations by 2010. East Germany and West Germany reunited in 1990. The new Germany became a leading power in Europe, despite economic difficulties stemming from the collapse of the East German economy.
In Great Britain, power shifted from the Conservative Party to the Labour Party under Tony Blair. In 2010, power shifted back to the Conservative Party. In France, conservative politicians were in the ascendancy from 1993 to 2007. Leaders have struggled with growing resentment against foreignborn residents. Changes in the United States and Canada The Republican president Ronald Reagan sent U.S. policy in new directions, but at the cost of record budget deficits. George Bush, Reagans vice president, succeeded
Reagan, but Bush was unable to deal with the countrys economic woes. Economic prosperity returned under Democrat Bill Clinton, but Clintons presidency was damaged by charges of misconduct. Republican George W. Bush led the U.S. war on terrorism but lost support because of the Iraq War and a sudden economic downturn. Barack Obama, the first African American president, was elected in 2008 and moved quickly to deal with the economic crisis.
Changes in the United States and Canada Canadas prime ministers have faced issues related to the NAFTA agreement, as well as the status of French-speaking Quebec. Society and Culture in the West Despite a backlash against the womens movement in the 1990s, gains have been made in recent years. The United States has dominated the art world since World War II.
o Abstract expressionism o Postmodernism o Todays interactive art forms American performers, filmmakers, and sports figures help spread American popular culture throughout the world. Society and Culture in the West People in some nations worry about cultural imperialismthe weakening of their languages and cultures as a result of the spread of American
popular culture. Although Western culture still dominates, trends in the opposite direction are developingfor instance, the popularity of non-Western music. Chapter 21 Lesson 3 China, Japan and the Koreas Tiananmen Square Despite advances under Deng Xiaoping, many
Chinese complained that their country had not achieved a fifth modernizationdemocracy. As more Chinese studied abroad and learned about the West, students and other groups demanded greater freedom. In 1989, growing discontent led to massive demonstrations in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. o Student protesters called for an end to corruption and demanded that Communist Party leaders resign.
Tiananmen Square Deng Xiaoping ordered tanks and troops into the square to crush the demonstrators. o Between 500 and 2,000 protesters were killed, and many more were injured. Chinese Society Mao and the Communist Party encouraged people to put loyalty to the state before loyalty to the family.
o Women allowed to take part in politics and granted equal marital rights After Maos death, family traditions returned. People enjoyed more freedom in everyday life. o Better living conditions o Clothing no longer restricted to baggy Mao suits Chinese Society Maos efforts to control population growth were continued with a one-child policy.
o Incentives for couples who limit their families to one child o Resulting decline in population growth rate Issues in South Korea South Korea has been a democratic republic since 1989. The country is ruled by elected civilians instead of military leaders. Tension remains between North and South Korea due to North Korea's nuclear program and military attacks on South Korea. South Korea has suffered from economic problems
following a banking collapse and Asia's financial crisis of 1997. Focus on economic security and a strong educational system kept unemployment low during difficult financial times. South Korea's cultural landscape is changing as the country embraces digital media and technology. Chapter 21 Lesson 4 Regions After the Cold War
Uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa Violence has sometimes broken out between Israelis and Palestinians as a result of territorial disputes. Efforts to resolve the disputes peacefully have failed. The United States invaded Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. Taliban forces in Afghanistan resisted U.S. and other NATO troops. Iraq fell into civil war. In 2009, Iranians protested the re-election of
President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, claiming fraud. The protest was put down by the military. Uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa In late 2010, Tunisia erupted in mass protests and riots against oppressive government control. By early 2011, the Tunisian president had fled the country. In 2011, Egyptian youth used social media to spur large protests against government control and military brutality. President Hosni Mubarak was
forced to leave the country when his army sided with the protestors. 2011: The United Nations authorized air strikes against Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi's troops after the Libyan president began to crack down on antigovernment protestors. Uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa 2011: Protestors in Iraq demanded improved government services. 2011: Algeria, Yemen, Jordan, Bahrain, Oman,
Morocco, Saudi Arabia, and Syria all experienced uprisings. Iran Iran was formerly known as Persia. Economically, Iran benefits from large deposits of petroleum. The country is led by Muslim clerics who adhere to strict Islamic law. Civil rights, particularly for women, are limited.
Demonstrations for civil liberties and fair elections have been met with military crackdowns. Cte d'Ivoire In 1993, conflicts arose between Christians and recently arrived Muslim immigrants. Civil war in 2002 split the nation into a Muslim, rebel-dominated north and a Christian, government-controlled south. A highly anticipated 2010 presidential election
failed to bring unity to the country. As a result of the civil war, the Cte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) has a weak economy, with high unemployment and widespread food shortages. Pakistan Religious differences between Pakistan and India have led to conflict over the borders of Kashmir, a northern territory claimed by both but divided between the two nations. Though clashes in 2002 led to threats of war, diplomacy averted any
military actions. Benazir Bhutto, leader of the Pakistan People's Party and the first female prime minister of a Muslim nation, was dismissed from office, twice, on misconduct charges. She was assassinated during a political campaign event in 2008. Other Pakistani leaders have been charged with corruption in recent times. Corruption has sometimes been used as a justification for military coups. Pakistan
Radical Muslim groups exert significant influence in Pakistan. The killing of Osama bin Laden during a U.S. military raid in 2011 led to controversy. Pakistani leaders criticized the United States for conducting a military operation within Pakistan without providing advance notification to Pakistan's government. United States officials criticized Pakistani leaders for not having done enough to rid their country of terrorists. Drug Wars in Mexico
Mexico suffers from high poverty and unemployment, relatively high illiteracy, and political corruption. These challenges have contributed to a destructive trade in illegal drugs. Mexican drug cartels have taken over primary distribution of Colombian cocaine to the United States, which is the largest market for the drug. Drug-related crime and violence has risen along the border between Mexico and the United States. A campaign by the Mexican military against drug trafficking, begun in 2006, has resulted in a wave of violence that has killed 35,000 people.
Drug cartels recruit impoverished Central American youth as workers and assign them to dangerous lowlevel tasks.
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