Chapter 14

Chapter 14

CHAPTER 14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD OBJECTIVES List the components and functions of blood components. List the components and functions of blood plasma. Describe the various mechanisms that prevent blood loss. Understand blood typing and transfusions. FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD TRANSPORTATION Oxygen

From lungs to cells Carbon Dioxide Waste product of cellular respiration Nutrients From gastrointestinal tract to body cells Heat and Waste Away from cells Hormones From endocrine glands to other body cells FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD REGULATION

pH Of body fluids Body temperature Heat-absorbing and coolant properties of water in blood plasma Flow of water through skin for cooling Water content of cells Through blood osmotic pressure FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD PROTECTION Prevents blood loss through clotting Combats microbes and toxins through action of certain phagocytic white blood cells or specialized

plasma proteins Interferon and complements are proteins that help protect against disease COMPONENTS OF WHOLE BLOOD Viscosity (stickiness or thickness; resistance to flow) greater than that of water Temperature range 38C or 100.4F. pH range between 7.35 and 7.45 Is this alkaline or acidic?

8% of total body weight. Volume in average-sized adult male body 5 to 6 liters or 1.5 gallons. Volume in average-sized adult female body 4 to 5 liters or 1.2 gallons. COMPONENTS OF WHOLE BLOOD

Whole blood composed of two portions 55% blood plasma Liquid containing dissolved substances 45% formed elements Cells and cell fragments Hematocrit: percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells (99% of formed elements are red blood cells) Buffy coat: thin layer of platelets and pale colorless white blood cells; less than 1% of blood volume Blood Plasma

Straw-colored liquid left when formed elements removed from blood blood plasma Composition: 91.5 % water 7% proteins 1.5% solutes Principle solutes include: Proteins (Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogen) Nutrients Hormones Respiratory gases Electrolytes Waste products

Formed Elements Red Blood Cells (RBCs) White Blood Cells (WBCs) Granular leukocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranular leukocytes T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells Monocytes Platelets Formation of Blood Cells

Hemopoiesis: process through which formed elements develop from pluripotent stem cells in red bone marrow Before birth hemopoiesis occurs in yolk sac of an embryo Fetal hemopoiesis occurs in the liver, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes Hemopoiesis during the last three months before birth occurs in red bone marrow and continues there throughout life Formation of Blood Cells Red

bone marrow is derived from mesenchymal cells called pluripotent stem cells Hormones stimulate pluripotent stem cells into two other types of stem cells: Myeloid stem cells Differentiate into red blood cells, platelets, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes Lymphoid stem cells Differentiate into T and B lymphocytes Red Blood Cells(RBCs) Aka: ERYTHROCYTES

Hemoglobin oxygen-carrying pigment Gives whole blood its red color STRUCTURE OF RBCs: Biconcave discs 7-8m in diameter (1m = 1/25,000 of an inch) No nuclei or other organelles Cannot divide Do no carry on any extensive metabolic activity Composed of : Selectively permeable plasma membrane Cytosol Hemoglobin

Healthy male has about 5.4 million RBCs/L of blood Healthy female has about 4.8 million RBCs/L of blood RBC LIFE CYCLE Live about 120 days Wear and tear on plasma membrane squeezing through capillaries necessitates replacement (1) (2) (3)

(4) Macrophages in spleen, liver, and red bone marrow through the process of phagocytosis rupture worn-out red blood cells splitting apart the globin and heme portions of hemoglobin. Globin broken down into amino acids (to be used in protein synthesis). Iron removed from heme portion associates with plasma protein called transferrrin. Iron-transferrin complex goes to red bone marrow for RBC precursor cells to use in hemoglobin synthesis. IRON NEEDED FOR HEME PORTION OF HEMOGLOBIN, AMINO ACID NEEDED FOR GLOBIN. Also needed: Vitamin B12_ and Intrinsic factor. Intrinsic Factor protein produced in stomach lining (5) (6)

(7) Erythropoiesis is the process in red bone marrow that results in production of new red blood cells. Iron removed from heme, non-iron portion converted to hiliverdin, a green pigment, and then into bilirubin, a yellow-orange pigment. Bilirubin enters blood and is transported to the liver, where it is secreted into bile. Bile goes to small intestine then large intestine. Bacteria in large intestine converts bilirubin into urobilinogen, which is absorbed back into the blood, and converted to a yellow pigment called urobilin, which is excreted in urine. Urobilinogen is eliminated in feces in the form of a brown pigment called stercobilin. RBC PRODUCTION Erythropoiesis formation of only RBCs in

the red bone marrow of adults RBC PRODUCTION Hypoxia DEFICIENCY OF OXYGEN WBC STRUCTURE AND TYPES SOME REVIEW Also called: leukocytes Have nuclei but do not contain hemoglobin

Classified as granular or agranular depending on whether or not they contain granules. Granular leukocytes include: Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranular leukocytes include: Monocytes Lymphocytes B cells T cells

Natural Killer Cells WBC FUNCTIONS Main function: Combat inflammation and infection Through processes of : Phagocytosis Antibody production Natural Killer CellsFYI WBC LIFE SPAN Life span = few hours to a few days

Normal blood contains 5000 to 10,000 WBCs per L WBC PRODUCTION Developed in red bone marrow leukocytes Monocytes and granular leukocytes develop from myeloid stem cells T and B cells develop from lymphoid stem cells Platelets

Are derived from: Pluripotent stem cells Structure: Disk-shaped fragment Lack a nucleus Normal blood contains 250,000 to 400,000 platelets/L HEMOSTASI S

Hemostasis sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured Three mechanisms that reduce blood loss: Vascular Spasm Platelet Plug Formation Blood Clotting (Coagulation) Hemostasis averts hemorrhage in smaller blood vessels Read pages 387-388 Complete notes for Vascular Spasm, Platelet Plug Formation, and Blood Clotting

BUT firstlets watch this http:// www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2002_general/Esp/ folder_structure/tr/m1/s7/trm1s7_3.htm Vascular Spasm Blood vessel damaged Its smooth muscle wall contracts immediately Initiated by pain receptors Reduces blood loss Few minutes to several hours

Then other hemostatic mechanisms begin to operate Vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessel; platelets accumulate at damage site-release chemicals to maintain vascular spasm Platelet Plug Formation Plugs form when platelets come into contact with parts of a damaged blood vessel

Platelet Plug Formation process: Platelet Adhesion Platelets contact and stick to damaged blood vessel (collagen fibers of connective tissue underlying damaged endothelial cells) Platelet Release Reaction Result of adhesion = platelets activated; characteristics change; extend projections to connect and interact; interaction triggers release of chemicals from their vesicles; chemicals activate nearby platelets to sustain vascular spasm= decreased blood flow through injured vessel Platelet Aggregation Chemicals made platelets sticky so they stick together and gather (aggregation); eventually enough to form a mass called platelet plug; completely covers hole in damaged vessel; blood loss ceases Clotting

Serum: plasma minus clotting proteins Clots are composed of a network of insoluble fibers (fibrin) filled with trapped formed elements Coagulation: formation of fibrin threads in a series of chemical reactions Thrombosis: if blood clots too easily may result in a clot in an unbroken blood vessel Hemorrhage: if blood takes too long to clot = uncontrolled bleeding

Three stages of the clotting process: Prothrombinase formed It is then converted to prothrombin (plasma protein formed in liver with help of Vitamin K); then converted to thrombin Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen (plasma protein formed by liver) into soluble fibrin; fibrin forms threads of clot CLOTTING FACTORS: Calcium ions, enzymes, and molecules associated with platelets or damaged tissues activate each other throughout the clotting process Clear Retraction and Blood Vessel Repair Clot Retraction: consolidation or tightening

of fibrin to reduce further damage Blood Vessel Repair: fibrin threads attached to damaged surfaces of blood vessels gradually contract as platelets pull them in; as clot retracts it pulls edges of vessel closer together = decreasing risk of further injury Hemostatic Control Mechanisms Small, inappropriate clots dissolve through the process of fibrinolysis

What is the relationship between plasminogen and plasmin? PLASMINOGEN IS AN INACTIVE PLASMA ENZYME; IS INCORPAORATED INTO A CLOT. PLASMINOGEN IS ACTIVATED TO PLASMIN BY CERTAIN SUBSTANCES FOUND IN BOTH BODY TISSUES AND BLOOD. PLASMIN IS AN ACTIVE PLASMA ENZYME, WHEN PLASMA IS FORMED IT CAN DISSOLVE CLOTS BY DIGESTING FIBRIN THREADS. Heparin _Anticoagulant; prevents blood clots

Warfarin (Coumadin) Antagonist to Vitamin K thus blocking synthesis of 4 clotting factors; also prevents clotting Clotting in Blood Vessels Atherosclerosis accumulation of fatty substances on arterial walls; result = roughening of endothelial surfaces of blood vessels; now possibility to blood clots forming when blood flows too slowly (allows clotting factors to accumulate) Pulmonary Embolism embolism in the lungs; blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or piece of debris are causes

BLOOD GROUPS AND BLOOD TYPES RBC surfaces are marked by genetically determined glycolipids and glycoproteins called isoantigens or agglutinogens. distinguishes at least 24 different blood groups i.e. ABO, Rh, etc. ABO Blood Group Based on two glycolipid isoantigens called A and B found on surface of RBCs.

If RBCs display display display display only antigen A blood type A only antigen B blood type B both antigens A & B blood type AB neither antigen blood type O Plasma contains isoantibodies or agglutinins to the A or B antigens not found in your blood anti-A antibody reacts with antigen A anti-B antibody reacts with antigen B

Rh Blood Group Antigen was discovered in blood of Rhesus monkey People with Rh isoantigens on RBC surface are Rh+. People with no Rh isoantigens on RBC surface are Rh-. Normal plasma contains no anti-Rh antibodies. RISK ASSOCIATED WITH RhMOTHERS Rh negative mom and Rh+ fetus will have

mixing of blood at birth thus the Mom's body creates Rh antibodies unless she receives a RhoGam shot soon after first delivery, miscarriage or abortion. In 2nd child, hemolytic disease of the newborn may develop causing hemolysis of the fetal RBCs Transfusions Universal Donors and Recipients: People with type AB blood called UNIVERSAL

RECIEPIENT since have no antibodies in plasma. People with type O blood cell called UNIVERSAL DONOR since have no antigens on their cells theoretically can be given to anyone. Transfusion transfer of whole blood or blood components (RBCs only or plasma only) into the bloodstream Transfusion chart A B AB O

ANTIGEN A B A and B NEITHER ANTIBODY B A NEITHER

A and B MAY RECEIVE FROM A and O B and O ALL O MAY DONATE TO A and AB

B and AB AB ALL

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Purposes of Dance Objective 12: The student will

    Purposes of Dance Objective 12: The student will

    Purposes of Dance. Objective 12: The student will demonstrate understanding by comparing the purposes for which dance is created . Religious /Ceremonial - a dance that is part of a ritual. ... PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: Brewer, Margaret
  • American Chemical Society ACS Washington, DC Organizer Resources

    American Chemical Society ACS Washington, DC Organizer Resources

    Slide 1 Author: Ian Radcliffe Keywords: branding, template, presentation, PowerPoint Last modified by ... Default Design Custom Design 1_Custom Design 2_Custom Design 1_Default Design Adobe Photoshop Image ACS Washington, DC Organizer Resources PowerPoint Presentation No Recording Policy ...
  • PBIS: Universal Systems, Practices, and

    PBIS: Universal Systems, Practices, and

    PBIS Universal Systems, Practices, and Data-based decision making, Part 1. Approximate agenda for today. 8:30 Welcome, introductions, basics of PBIS, PBIS Team roles, etc. ... KAHFOOTY = Keep Your Hands Feet and Other Objects To Yourself. Shelton High School -...
  • Making a Marijuana Impaired Driving Case Sergeant Mike Halford

    Making a Marijuana Impaired Driving Case Sergeant Mike Halford

    Objectives. Identify common signs and symptoms of marijuana impaired driving. Discuss best practices for making a marijuana impaired driving case
  • Chapter 3: Part II Water and Soil Corrosion

    Chapter 3: Part II Water and Soil Corrosion

    Because these lines need to handle differing amounts of liquid depending on the power load, they are only wetted along the bottom (6 o'clock position). This corrosion is sometimes called condensate channeling in the power-generation business. ... Slime-forming bacteria.
  • CITY OF GLENDALE, CA APRIL 2, 2015 BRAND

    CITY OF GLENDALE, CA APRIL 2, 2015 BRAND

    PAVEMENT GRINDING (AKA Cold Mill/ Surface Plane) Remove Existing Deteriorated AC Pavement. BRAND BLVD, GARDENA AVE & ADJACENT STREETS - SEWER. AND STREET IMPROVEMENTS, AND TYBURN SEWER TRUNK. LINE. AT RAILROAD CROSSING IMPROVEMENT PROJECT. Grinds will be Hauled Away ....
  • Cell Theory

    Cell Theory

    CELL THEORY. Evidence: With the invention of microscopes (Janssen) scientists could see cells (Hooke, Leeuwenhoek) Pasteur demonstrated that cells couldn't grow in sterile conditions (disproved abiogenesis) Organelles and viruses cannot carry out all of the characteristics of other living things....
  • Arrhenius Theory  Acids ionize in water to produce

    Arrhenius Theory Acids ionize in water to produce

    3) Label the strongest acid (SA) and strongest base (SB) using the table on pages 8 and 9 in the data booklet. 4) Write an equation showing the transfer of one proton from the strongest acid to the strongest base,...