Chapter 15: Japan - Mrs. Renton's Online Classroom

Chapter 15: Japan - Mrs. Renton's Online Classroom

Chapter 15: Japan Section 1: Geography and Early Japan Geography Shapes Life in Japan Japan is a large group of islands located off the Asian mainland. The islands of Japan are really the tops of

mountains. The mountains were difficult to live on, so most people lived on flat coastal plains near the sea. The Sea Influenced Japan Provided Food Shark Seaweed

Eel Separated it from other Countries Japan remained isolated until its rulers decided to visit other countries. Provided easy access to other countries China and Korea were only a short distance by sea from Japan Japans Geography The Ainu The Ainu, was a culture, that developed in Japan, likely from what is now in Siberia, in Eastern Russia. Were different from other people of Japan Spoke a different language Looked different Began fighting for land

Lost fights and lost land Driven back onto a single island, Hokkaido. Culture almost disappeared Many gave up the Ainu language and adopted new customs Early Japanese Society The early Japanese were organized into extended families,

or clans, that lived in small farming villages. The head of the clan, or chief, had religious and political power over the people of the villages. Chiefs were believed to have gained their power through kami, which were nature spirits. Shinto: Traditional Religion of Japan Rituals to honor the kami

(nature spirits), became the central part of Shinto, a traditional Japanese religion. Shinto believes that everything in nature has kami. They built shrines to the kami and asked the spirits to bless them. The First Emperors

Some clans became more powerful than others and built up armies. The Yamato clan from the western part of Japans largest island, Hoshnu. Claimed to have a glorious family history. They extended their control over much of Honshu, by the 500s. Although they did not control the whole country, they called

themselves the first emperors of Japan. Japan Learns from China & Korea The rulers of Japan sent representatives to China and Korea to gather information about their cultures and invited people from Korea and China to come to Japan. The Japanese Learned to write Chinese Still spoke Japanese

Write Japanese about 200 years later Learned about Confucianism, which outlined how families should behave Learn about new religions, especially Buddhism Prince Shotoku Served as regent (a person who rules a country for someone who is unable to rule)

for his aunt, the empress Admired Chinese culture and helped bring it to Japan Sent scholars Influenced the spread of Buddhism by writing commentaries and building a beautiful temple Shinto Religion Chapter 15: Japan Section 2: Art and Culture in Heian Japanese Nobles create Great Art The Japanese imperial court was made up of a group of nobles who lived nearby and served the emperor.

The emperor and his court moved to Heian in 794. Heian is now known as the city of Kyoto. Period of the Heian Court: Golden Age Fashion: Beautiful silk robes and decorative fans became popular. Literature: This was the time of

the greatest writers in Japanese history. Visual Art: Paintings, calligraphy, and architecture were more elaborate. Performing Arts: Musicians, jugglers, acrobats, and actors all entertained the court. Buddhism Changes Religion became somewhat of an art

form during the Heian. The religion of the nobles reflected their love of elaborate rituals. Most common people did not have the money for elaborate rituals. New forms of Buddhism began to develop. Pure Land Buddhism Popular among the common people; did not require special rituals

Zen Buddhism Involved self-discipline and meditation; was popular among the warriors of Japan Chapter 15: Japan Section 3: Growth of a Military Society Emperors Lose Influence Samurai and shoguns took over Japan as emperors lost influence.

The emperor was distracted by life at the court. The landowners, or daimyo, were worried that they needed to protect their land. Landowners hired samurai, or trained professional warriors, to defend their property. Watch

Discovery Education: Samurai Warriors Shoguns Rule Japan The nobles became frustrated with the emperor, so they decided to take power. Two powerful clans fought for thirty years. The Minamoto clan won the war but decided to keep the emperor as a figurehead, a person who appears to rule even though real power rests with someone else.

The Minamotos became shoguns, generals who ruled Japan in the emperors name. Shoguns ruled Japan for 700 years. Samurai Warriors lived Honorably The word samurai comes from the Japanese word for servant. Armies of samurai were expensive to support.

Samurai were paid with land or food. They followed a strict code of rules called Bushido, which taught them how to behave. Watch Discovery Education: Shoguns Rule Japan Bushido: The Way of the Warrior

Samurai followed Bushido, which means the way of the warrior. Both men and women of samurai families learned how to fight, but only men went to war. Women protected their homes from robbers. They lived simple and disciplined lives. Obeying their lord was the

most important thing for their sense of honor. Order Broke Down Order broke down when the power of the shoguns was challenged by invaders and rebellions. Foreign invasions by the Chinese threatened the empire and caused chaos. The

shoguns sent troops to fight the Mongols. They withstood the invasion attempts, but many nobles thought the shoguns did not give them enough credit for their part in the fighting. Order Broke Down Cont. Internal rebellion occurred when the emperor tried to

regain his power that had been lost to the shoguns. Daimyo, who owned most of the land, fought to break away from the shoguns power. Small wars broke out all over Japan. The shoguns lost most of their power and authority. The emperor was still largely powerless, and the daimyo ruled his own territory.

Watch Discovery Education: End of the Samurai Era Strong Leaders Reunify Japan Oda Nobunago was the first leader to try to reunify Japan. Efforts continued to try to reunify Japan after Oda died.

By 1603, Japan was ruled by shoguns from one family, the Tokugawa. Tokugawa Shogunate In 1603 Japans emperor made Tokugawa shogun. The rule by one family lasted until 1868. During their rule, Japan traded with other countries and let Christian missionaries live in

Japan. Later shoguns closed off Japan from the rest of the world and banned guns. This helped extend the samurai period in Japan until the 1800s. Watch

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