Chapter 15 Multistep Syntheses

Chapter 15 Multistep Syntheses

Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Monomers and Polymers Linear and Branched Polymers Types of Polymerization Addition Polymerization Condensation Polymers Extensively Cross-Linked Polymers (SKIP) Three-Dimensional Structure Polymers (SKIP p. 813-818 top)

Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Polymer Nomenclature - Monomers and Polymers Definitions of polymer, monomer, plastic, thermoplastic and thermoset plastic in handout repeat units, average degree of polymerization Polymer Architecture - Linear and Branched Polymers See handout for depiction of linear, branched, star, comb, ladder and cross-linked networks Polymer Morphology

ordered = crystalline regions random = amorphous regions Polymer properties and transitions Modulus (degree of hardness/softness) Glass Transition Temperature (transition from glassy to rubbery) Melt Temperature(transition to viscous flow) Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Types of Polymerization Addition (also called chain-growth) Radical (three steps initiation, propagation, termination) Cationic Anionic (called living polymer, can make block co-polymers) Condensation (also called step-growth) loss of water Polyester Polyamide

Polycarbonate Polyurethane Epoxy resins Polysaccharides (starch) Polypeptides and proteins Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Addition Polymerization Radical Polymerization 3 steps (initiation, propagation, and termination) see handout

Ionic Polymerization cationic anionic (living polymers, useful to make block co-polymers) Cross-Linking in Polymers (can use bi-functional, tri functional, quadrifunctional monomers) Heteroatom-Containing Addition Polymers Polyols can not make polyvinyl alcohol from vinyl alcohol, instead polymerize vinyl acetate and then hydrolyze to polyvinylalcohol Polyethers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) Polyacetals (e.g., paraformaldehyde from formaldehyde) Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Condensation Polymers Polyesters (from a dicarboxylic acid and diol)

Polysaccharides (from carbohydrate (or sugar) condensation) Polyamides (from dicarboxylic acid and diamine) Polypeptides (from20 common amino acids) Polyurethanes (form bis-isocyanate and diol) Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Three-Dimensional Structure of Polymers Polypropylene (SKIP pages 813-818 top) Naturally Occurring Polypeptides Primary structure - amino acid sequence Secondary structure -pleated - deviation from planarity due to steric interactions -helix - hydrogen bonding from peptide units in the same chain Tertiary structure - spatially dispersed -pleated and -helix Quaternary structure - several polypeptides form a complex

Cellulose and Starch Starch from -glucose (axial C1-OH group) Cellulose from -glucose (equatorial C1-OH group) Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Review of Reactions Be able to draw the basic polymerization mechanism for radical, anionic, cationic general condensation polymerization for a polyester, polyamide, polyurethane, polypeptide Review Problems Especially review problem 16.1 Know nomenclature of synthetic and natural polymers Know how to identify repeat units

Chapter 16 Polymeric Materials Summary Definitions for polymer, monomer, plastic, thermoplastic, thermoset, melt temperature, glass transition temp. Nomenclature for simple addition and condensation polymers Linkages between monomers include C-C bonds in vinyl polymers C-O bonds in polyesters, polyacetals, polyethers, polysaccharides C-N bonds in polyamides, polypeptides Role of Hydrogen bonding in nitrogen and oxygen containing polymers intermolecular H-bonding in pleated peptides intramolecular H-bonding in helix peptide structures primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures

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