Chapter 16 Solid and Hazardous Waste

Chapter 16 Solid and Hazardous Waste 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Core Case Study: Cradle-to-Cradle Design (1 of 2) Cradle-to-grave: the life cycle of product begins when it is manufactured (cradle) to when it is discarded (grave). Cradle-to-cradle: products are part of a

continuous cycle. Degradable partsbiological nutrients Reused partstechnical nutrients How can we make the transition to a sustainable low-waste economy? 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 Core Case Study: Cradle-to-Cradle Design (2 of 2) 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

3 16.1 What Environmental Problems Are Related to Solid and Hazardous Wastes? Solid waste contributes to pollution when valuable materials are not recycled/reused. Hazardous waste not only contributes to pollution but also causes natural capital degradation, health problems, and premature deaths. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

4 We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things Living in a throwaway society violates all the principles of sustainability Live more sustainably by viewing solid waste/pollution as potentially useful/economically valuable materials How can industrial/municipal solid waste be reused and recycled? Can products be designed to curb waste? 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Hazardous Waste Is a Serious and Growing Problem Toxic: discarded materials or substances that are poisonous, chemically reactive, corrosive, or flammable Industrial solvents, hospital medical waste, car batteries, household pesticides, dry-cell batteries, ash/sludge (incinerators/industry) Radioactive: from nuclear power plants Must be stored for 10,000240,000 years

Currently no known way to safely store them 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6 16.2 How Should We Deal with Solid Waste? The best way to deal with solid waste is prevention. Do not use it to start with, if possible. Existing waste should be reused, recycled, or disposed of safely. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 7 Waste Management Waste management: controlling wastes in ways that reduce environmental harm Burying/burning/shipping to another location Waste reduction: producing less/reusing, recycling, and composting existing waste Integrated waste management: strategies for waste disposal and reduction

2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8 Reducing and Managing Waste 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 9 The Four Rs of Waste Reduction Input, or waste prevention:

Refuse: Dont use it Reduce: Use less Reuse: Use it over and over Recycle: Convert used resources to useful items/buy products made from recycled materials Composting: using bacteria to treat biodegradable waste

2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 10 Six Strategies to Reduce Resource Use, Waste, and Pollution Change industrial processes to eliminate/reduce the use of harmful chemicals Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less material and energy Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, or recycle

Eliminate/reduce unnecessary packaging Use fee-per-bag waste collection systems Pass laws 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Recommendations for Dealing with Municipal and Solid Waste 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12

16.3 Why Are Refusing, Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling So Important? If we decrease our consumption of matter and energy resources by refusing and reducing resource use, by reusing and recycling what we usewe will reduce pollution, decrease natural capital degradation, and save money. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13

There Are Alternatives to the Throwaway Economy Applying the four Rs: Refusing to buy things that have a significant environmental impact Reducing: buying less, how many do I need? Reuse: clean and reuse items such as refillable coffee cups, dishes, utensils, cloth napkins, etc., to increase their lifespan Recycling and composting: convert used items and materials to other useful forms 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

14 How Can Individuals Reuse the Items They Purchase? (1 of 2) What Can You Do? Reuse Buy beverages in refillable glass containers Use reusable lunch containers Store refrigerated food in reusable containers Use rechargeable batteries and recycle them when their useful life is over 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

15 How Can Individuals Reuse the Items They Purchase? (2 of 2) When eating out, bring your own reusable container for leftovers Carry groceries and other items in a reusable basket or cloth bag Buy used furniture, cars, and other items, whenever possible 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

16 How Individual Countries Deal with Throwaway Packaging Some governments have banned beverage containers that cannot be reused. For example, in Finland, 95% of all soft drink, beer, wine, and spirits containers are refillable. Some tax single-use plastic shopping bags In 2014, Hawaii became the first U.S. state to ban the use of these shopping bags. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 17 There Is Great Potential for Recycling Recyclable workplace/household materials: paper products, glass, aluminum, steel, and some plastics The life cycle of new items: Primary/closed loop recyclingexisting aluminum cans become new aluminum cans Secondary recyclingwaste materials are converted to new and different products Three steps: material collection, conversion

to new products, and new commercial sales 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 18 Composting Another form of recyclingbacteria are used to decompose yard trimmings, vegetable food scraps, and other biodegradable organic waste Benefits: enriches nutrients in soil, reduces erosion, retains water, and improves crop yields In Canada and in European Union countries, many cities collect and compost 85% or more of

their biodegradable waste in centralized facilities 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19 The Pros and Cons of Recycling Critics argue costs/taxes add to the taxpayer burden, only making economic sense for paper/cardboard/steel/aluminum. Proponents feel the economic, health, and environmental benefits far outweigh costs. Some cities profit by recycling:

Single-pickup systems Pay-as-you-throw approach Recycling/reuse/composting creates jobs 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 20 Recycling Tradeoffs 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 21

16.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Burning and Burying Solid Waste Technologies for burning and burying have advanced, but both still have disadvantages. Burning contributes to air and water pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases. Buried wastes contribute to water pollution. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 22 The Pros and Cons of Burning Solid Waste

Highly polluting/poorly regulated incinerators are a thing of the past Today, large waste-to-energy incinerators use their heat to boil water, make steam to produce electricity or heat buildings Ash produced from burning can contain toxic chemicals and must be stored somewhere Must compete with abundant low-cost landfills Local government/scientists oppose thisas it undermines efforts to reuse and recycle 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 23 A Waste-to-Energy Incinerator 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 24 Burying Solid Waste Typically, in two types of landfills: Sanitary landfills: solid wastes are spread out

in thin layers, compacted, and covered daily with a fresh layer of clay or plastic foam Keeps materials dry, reduces leakage of contaminated water, lessens fire risk, decreases odors, and limits accessibility from vermin Open dump: a large field or pit where garbage is deposited and sometimes burned Rare in more developed countriesChina uses open dumps and poorly regulated landfills 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 25 A State-of-the-Art Sanitary Landfill 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 26 16.5 How Should We Deal with Hazardous Waste? The best way to deal with hazardous waste is to prevent itexisting waste should be

reused, recycled, and converted to less hazardous materials, and the remainder should be stored safely. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 27 We Can Use Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste Three management levels for dealing with the problem: Produce less Convert as much of it as possible to less

hazardous substances Put the rest in long-term safe storage Top priority should be given to prevention/waste reduction and the finding of substitutes for hazardous materials 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 28 Integrated Hazardous Waste Management 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

29 We Can Detoxify Hazardous Waste Physical methods: use charcoal/resin to filter; distill liquid waste; encapsulate and store deadly waste safely and securely Chemical methods: convert to less harmful/harmless chemicals Bioremediation: use bacteria/enzymes to destroy/convert toxic/hazardous substances 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

30 Other Ways to Detoxify Hazardous Waste Phytoremedication: natural and genetically engineered plants absorb/filter/remove contaminants from soil/water Pollution sponges Plasma gasification: electrically produced high temperatures vaporize trash in the absence of oxygen Produces synthetic gaseous fuel and encapsulates toxics in glassy lumps of rock

2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 31 We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste Last resort: burial on land/long-term storage in secure vaults Deep-well disposalliquid waste pumped under high pressure through pipes into dry, porous formations beneath aquifers

Pros and cons: leakage from below into aquifers used for drinking waterinexpensive and waste can be retrieved if problems develop Limited number of such sites and limited space within each 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 32 More Ways to Store Hazardous Waste Surface impoundmentstorage in lined

ponds, pits, or lagoons Some have no liner, liners can leak or overflow during storms, and both can cause waste to percolate into groundwater Secure hazardous waste landfills: containment of both liquid/solid hazardous waste in drums/other containers and buried in landfills (expensive) 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 33 Hazardous Waste Storage

2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 34 16.6 How Can We Shift to a Low-Waste Economy? Individuals and businesses will need to reduce resource use and to reuse and recycle both solid and hazardous waste at all levels (local, national, and global). 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

35 Factors That Hinder Reuse and Recycling Artificially low pricesmost products do not include harmful environmental/health costs associated with production/disposal. Uneven economic playing fieldsreuse and recycling industries do not receive the tax breaks/subsidies given to extraction industries. The demand and pricing for recycled materials fluctuate. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 36 Reduction of Hazardous Waste Through Government Channels Basel Convention Treaty (1992)bans participating countries from shipping hazardous waste to or through countries without their permission Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)regulates 12 most widely used organic pollutants (dirty dozen); strengthened in 2014 to ban or phase out these chemicals

2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 37 More on Treaties and Laws The United States has signed, but not ratified, the Basel Convention Treaty (179 countries have) A ban on transferring hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to less-developed countries still awaits ratification. In 2000, the Swedish Parliament passed a

law requiring industries to perform chemicals risk assessmentthe burden of proof to show safety is now with industry 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 38 Additional Case Study: How Most of Europe Deals with the Four Rs (1 of 2) Stena, a Scandinavian-based European reuse/recycling company Recycles electronics, plastics, and other solid and hazardous waste.

Created x-ray glass and blasting abrasives from old picture tubes. Recycled plasticswhich due to moisture and other contaminants stored in plastic containers, can only be recycled about 10 times 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 39 Additional Case Study: How Most of Europe Deals with the Four Rs (2 of 2) To see the environmental impact of

recycling, check out Stenas interactive Climate Wheel Select an item and quantity of it for recycling a calculation is performed and you can see the amount of CO2 conserved Stena says To us, waste is what is left when imagination runs out. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 40 Additional Case Study: How Most of Europe Deals with the 4

Rs How does Stena handle hazardous wastes? How much CO2 is saved by recycling 1,000 cell phones? Do you think if people were more aware of the environmental and economic savings illustrated by the Climate Wheel, they would recycle more? Would you consider using their services? 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 41

Stena Innovative Recycling and the Three Big Ideas Stena is following sustainability priorities by collecting/reusing and recycling as much waste as possible. Working with all major treatment facilities in northern Europe, Stena offers secure recyclable/nonrecyclable hazardous waste services Stena, approved by the European Union, is a good example of a company viewing solid waste as an economic resource. 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated,

or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 42

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