Chapter 18

Chapter 18

Cakes and Cookies Chapter 18 Kinds of Cakes Shortened Unshortened Chiffon Cakes Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 2 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Shortened Cakes

Pound cakes Tender Compact and close grain Historically 1 pound each of butter, sugar, flour, and eggs. No leavening agent Leavened by air and steam Standard shortened cakes Fine grain Uniform cells with thin cell walls

Elastic crumb Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 3 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Ingredients in Standard Shortened Cakes Sugar Egg Fat Emulsifiers Leavening agents Flour

Liquid Chocolate in chocolate cakes Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 4 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Sugar Adds sweetness Promotes tenderness by interfering with gluten development Influences volume

Traps air during creaming Raises starch gelatinization temperature Decreases cohesive forces Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 5 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Eggs Add air when beaten Contributes to structure Eggs coagulate

Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 6 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Fat Often includes shortening, butter, and margarine Consider type of fat when make substitutions Diet margarine is lower in fat Increases tenderness Increases volume by

Decreasing cohesive forces Adding air during creaming Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 7 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Emulsifiers Allow fat to be distributed more finely and more sugar may be incorporated High ratio shortenings Decrease cohesive forces thereby increasing volume

Examples Mono- and diglycerides added to hydrogenated shortenings Also polysorbate 60 Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 8 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Leavening Agents Include

Baking powder Baking soda Air entrapped in creamed shortening Beaten egg whites Steam Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 9 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Flour Contributes structure Too little flour

Weak structure and coarse texture Cake may fall Too much flour Compact dry cake Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 10 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Flour All purpose flour

Cake flour Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 11 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Liquid Milk, water, and fruit juices Dissolves ingredients Hydrates starch and protein Produces steam

If excess liquid, poor volume Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 12 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Chocolate Cocoa and chocolate contain starch, therefore less flour Devils food cakes Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule

13 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Other Considerations Proportion of ingredients Recipe calculations Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 14 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Mixing Methods

Conventional Conventional sponge Muffin Quick mix Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 15 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Mixing Methods Conventional

Creaming fat with sugar Add eggs Add dry ingredients alternatively with liquid Conventional Sponge Cream fat with about one-half cup sugar One-half cup sugar beaten with eggs and reserved Add dry ingredients alternatively with liquid Fold in egg and sugar mixture Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 16 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Mixing Methods

Muffin Method Eggs, milk, and melted fat are mixed together and added at once to the dry ingredients Quick-mix method Uses higher proportion of sugar and liquid Sift dry ingredients into bowl Add all fat and part of liquid Add eggs and remaining liquid Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 17 2010 Pearson Higher Education,

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Over and Under Mixing Overmixing May toughen cakes especially if Lean mixture Higher protein flour used Compact cake Heavy or soggy Undermixing

Coarse texture Thick cell walls Concave surface especially if a rich mixture Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 18 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Preparation of Pans Prepare pans before mixing batter Grease pans

Bottoms and sides Bottoms only Greased and lightly floured Use of wax or parchment paper Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 19 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Baking Baking temperatures

Cooling before removal from pan Microwave baking Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 20 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Unshortened Cakes Do not include shortening or other types of added fat Angel food

Egg whites only Yellow sponge Whole egg Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 21 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Angel Food Ingredients Egg whites

Beat to foam Warm to room temperature before beating Avoid oil or egg yolk contact Do not beat in plastic bowl Flour Cake flour is preferable Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 22 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Angel Food Ingredients Sugar

Stabilizes egg white foam Sweetens Aids in browning Produces tender cake Cream of Tartar Produces a white cake Stabilizes egg white foam Prevents shrinkage of cake Produces more tender cake Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 23 2010 Pearson Higher Education,

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Mixing Angel Food Beat eggs Need good volume without over beating Usually beat part of sugar into eggs Gently fold flour and sugar mixture into beaten eggs whites Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 24 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Other Considerations Pans are not greased Baking Temperatures Cooling Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 25 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Sponge Cakes Preparation methods

Separated Whole egg Baking Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 26 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Cookies

Rolled Dropped Bar Pressed Molded Icebox or refrigerator Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 27 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Cookie Ingredients Like cakes ingredients vary Usually all-purpose flour

For crisp cookies Rich in fat, sugar, or both Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 28 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Mixing and Baking Conventional mixing method most common Baking Usually on cookie sheets Carry over baking

Introductory Foods, 13th ed. Bennion and Scheule 29 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

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