Chapter 19 - Acids, Bases, and Salts - Henry County School ...
Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts Jennie L. Borders Section 19.1 Acid-Base Theories Acids have a sour taste, change the color of an indicator, can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution, and react with metals.
Bases Bases taste bitter, change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution. Arrhenius Acids Arrhenius acids are compounds that produce H+ ions
(H3O+) in a solution. A monoprotic acid produces 1 H+ ion. Ex: HCl A diprotic acid produces 2 H+ ions. Ex. H2SO4 A triprotic acid produces 3 H+ ions. Ex: H3PO4 Arrhenius Bases Arrhenius bases are compounds that produce OHions in solution. Ex: NaOH
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases H+ ions are a proton. Bronsted-Lowry acids are proton (H+) donors. HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl Bronsted-Lowry bases are proton (H+) acceptors. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH- Conjugate Acid-Base Pair A conjugate acid is the particle formed when a base
gains a hydrogen. (An acid created from a base) A conjugate base is the particle formed when a acid loses a hydrogen. (A base created from an acid) + + ClHCl + H O
H O 2 3 acid base conj. conj.
acid H3O+ = hydronium ion base Sample Problem
Write the conjugate base for the following acids: HCl HSO4 H2O Practice Problem Write the conjugate acid for the following bases: NH3 SO42 HPO42-
Practice Problem Which of the following are conjugate acid-base pairs? a. HNO3, NO3b. H3PO4, PO43c. H2SO4, HSO3d. H3PO3, H2PO32e. HCN, H2O Sample Problem Label the acid, base, conjugate acid, and
conjugate base in the following reaction: CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+ Practice Problem Label the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in the following reaction: OH- + HOCl OCl- + H2O
Amphoteric A substance that is amphoteric can act as an acid or a base. Ex: H2O acid+ Hbase conj. + HCl 2O H3O + Cl
acid conj. base base acid conj.
conj. + NH 3 + H2O NH4 + OH acid base
Lewis Acids and Bases Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors. Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Section 19.1 Assessment 1. What are the properties of acids and bases? 2. How did Arrhenius define an acid and a base? 3. How are acids and bases defined by the BronstedLowry theory?
4. What is the Lewis theory of acids and bases? 5. Identify the following acids as monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic. a. H2CO3 b. H3PO4 c. HCl d. H2SO4 Section 19.2 Hydrogen Ions and
Acidity The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called the self-ionization of water. H2O H+ + OH- Ion Product Constant for Water In an aqueous solution, when [H+] increases, the [OH-] decreases and vice versa.
However, the total product of the two concentrations is always 1 x 10-14. This value is referred to a Kw (ion-product constant for water). [H+][OH-] = 1 x 10-14 ***K values have no units!! Acidic, Basic, or Neutral In a neutral solution, [H+] = [OH-] = 1 x 10-7M
In an acidic solution, the [H+] is larger than [OH-]. In a basic solution, the [OH-] is larger than [H+]. Sample Problem If the [H+] in a coke is 1.0 x 10-5M, what is the [OH-] and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? Practice Problems
1. Calculate the [OH-] of a solution that has an [H+] = 6.0 x 10-10M. Is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? 2. Calculate the [H+] of a solution that has a [OH-] = 3.0 x 10-2M. Is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? pH The pH of a solution is the negative log of the hydrogenion concentration.
pH = -log[H+] Acidic has a pH < 7 Neutral has a pH = 7 units!! Basic has a pH > 7 ***pH has no
Sample Problem What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen-ion concentration of 4.2 x 10-10M and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? Practice Problems 1. What is the pH of a solution that has an [H+] = 0.0015M and is the solution acidic, basic, or
neutral? 2. What is the pH value of a solution in which [H+] = 1.0 x 10-12M and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? pOH The pOH scale measures the OH- concentration, so it is
the opposite of the pH scale. pOH = -log[OH-] Acidic has a pOH > 7 Neutral has a pOH = 7 units!! Basic has a pOH < 7 ***pOH has no
pH vs. pOH The pOH scale is the reverse of the pH scale. pH + pOH = 14 Calculating Concentration When going from the pH or pOH to concentration, you must rearrange the log formulas.
[H+] = 10-pH [OH-] = 10-pOH pH Square Sample Problem The pH of an unknown solution is 6.35. What is the
hydrogen-ion concentration and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? Practice Problems 1. Calculate the pH of a solution with a pOH = 12.17 and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? 2. What is the pH of a solution if [OH-] = 4.0 x 10-11M
and is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? Acid-Base Indicators An acid-base indicator is a special chemical that changes color as the pH of a solution changes. Section 19.2 Assessment 1. What is the relationship between [H+] and [OH-] in
an aqueous solution? 2. What is true about the relative concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in each kind of solution? a. basic b. acidic c. neutral 3. Determine the pH of each solution. a. [H+] = 1 x 10-6M
c. [H+] = 0.00010M b. [OH-] = 1 x 10-2M d. [OH-] = 1 x 10-11M Section 19.2 Assessment 4. What are the hydroxide-ion concentrations for solutions with the following pH values? a. 6.00
b. 9.00 c. 12.00 Section 19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases In general, strong acids completely dissociate in aqueous solution. Weak acids only slightly ionize in aqueous solution.
Strong acids include HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HClO3, and HClO4. Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka) The acid dissociation constant (Ka) is the ratio of the concentration of dissolved ions to the concentration of undissolved acid. HNO2 + H2O H3O+ + NO2Ka = [H3O+][NO2-]
[HNO2] A pure solid or liquid (H2O) is not included in a K value. Ka The Ka value indicates the amount of ionized particles, so a weak acid has a small Ka and a strong acid has a large Ka.
Bases Strong bases fully ionize or dissociate in an aqueous solution. Weak bases partially ionize in an aqueous solution. Strong bases include NaOH, KOH, LiOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and Ba(OH)2. The most common weak base is NH3.
Base Dissociation Constant (Kb) The base dissociation constant (Kb) is the ratio of the concentration of dissolved ions to the concentration of undissolved base. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHKb = [NH4+][OH-] [NH3] The larger the Kb value, the stronger the base.
Generic K Equations The generic Ka formula: HA H+ + AKa = [H+][A-] [HA] The generic Kb formula: B + H2O BH+ + OHKb = [BH+][OH-] [B]
Sample Problem A 0.1000M solution of ethanoic acid is only partially ionized. From measurements of the pH of the solution, [H+] is determined to be 1.34 x 10-3M. What is the acid dissociation constant (Ka) of ethanoic acid?
Sample Problem Cont Sample Problem Cont Practice Problems 1. In a 0.1M solution of methanoic acid, [H+] = 4.2 x 10-3M. Calculate the Ka of methanoic acid.
2. In a 0.2M solution of a monoprotic weak acid, [H+] = 9.86 x 10-4M. What is the Ka for this acid? Section 19.3 Assessment 3. Compare a strong acid and a weak acid in terms of the acid dissociation constant. Section 19.4 Neutralization Reactions
A neutralization reaction is a reaction between an acid and a base that forms water and a salt. Ex: HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl H2SO4 + 2KOH 2H2O + K2SO4 acid base
water salt A salt is a compound formed from the cation of a base and the anion of an acid. Sample Exercise
a. Write a balanced equation for the reaction between aqueous solutions of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and barium hydroxide. b. Write the net ionic equation for this reaction. Practice Exercise a. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of
carbonic acid (H2CO3) and potassium hydroxide. b. Write the net ionic equation for this reaction. Titration A titration is the use of a buret to add a measured amount of a known acid (or base) to a measured amount of an unknown base (or acid) until
neutralization is achieved. The equivalence point of a titration is when the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions. Sample Problem How many moles of sulfuric acid are required to neutralize 0.50 mol of sodium hydroxide?
Practice Problems 1. How many moles of potassium hydroxide are needed to completely neutralize 1.56 mol of phosphoric acid? 2. How many moles of sodium hydroxide are required to neutralize 0.20 mole of nitric acid?
Sample Exercise How many grams of Ca(OH)2 are needed to neutralize 25.0mL of 0.100M HNO3? Practice Exercise a. How many grams of NaOH are needed to neutralize 20.0mL of 0.150M H2SO4 solution?
b. How many liters of 0.500M HCl are needed to react completely with 0.100 mol of Pb(NO3)2, forming a precipitate of PbCl2? Titration The end point of a titration is the point at which the indicator changes color.
In the best titrations, the end point corresponds to the equivalence point. Sample Problem A 25mL solution of H2SO4 is completely neutralized by 18mL of 1.0M NaOH. What is the concentration of the H2SO4 solution?
Practice Problems 1. How many milliliters of 0.45M HCl will neutralize 25.0mL of 1.00M KOH? 2. What is the molarity of H3PO4 if 15.0mL is completely neutralized by 38.5mL of 0.150M NaOH?
Sample Exercise a. How many grams of chloride ion are in a sample of the water if 20.2mL of 0.100M Ag+ is needed to react with all the chloride in the sample? Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) b. If the sample has a mass of 10.0g, what percent Cl- does it contain?
Practice Exercise a. A solution that contains Fe2+ is titrated with 47.20mL of 0.02240M MnO4-. How many moles of MnO4- were added to the solution? MnO4-(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(l) b. How many moles of Fe2+ were in the sample?
Practice Exercise c. How many grams of iron were in the sample? d. If the sample had a mass of 0.8890g, what is the percentage of iron in the sample? Section 19.4 Assessment
1. What are the products of a reaction between an acid and a base? 2. How many moles of HCl are required to neutralize aqueous solutions of these bases? a. 2 mol NH3 b. 0.1 mol Ca(OH)2 3. Write complete balanced equations for the following acidbase reactions. a. H2SO4 + KOH b. H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2
c. HNO3 + Mg(OH)2 Section 19.5 Salts in Solutions Remember: A salt is a compound formed from the cation of a base and the anion of an acid. A salt solution can be acidic, basic, or neutral. Salt Solutions
Strong Acid + Strong Base = Neutral Solution Strong Acid + Weak Base = Acidic Solution Weak Acid + Strong Base = Basic Solution Buffers A buffer is a solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added.
A buffer is made from a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. A common buffer that you have is your blood. Buffer Since a buffer contains both an acidic and basic component, it can neutralize acid or base that is
added. The buffer capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs. Section 19.5 Assessment 1. What substances are combined to make a buffer? 2. Which of these salts would form an acidic aqueous
solution? a. KC2H3O2 b. LiCl c. NaHCO3 d. (NH4)2SO4
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