Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Food Sanitation Preparing and Serving Safe Food 2.1 Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness- is carried or transmitted to people by food. Negative impact on business:

Loss of customer sales

Loss of prestige/reputation Legal suits Increased insurance premiums Lower employee moral Employee Absenteeism Need for retraining Embarrassment 2.2 Work Healthy Microorganisms- living, single-celled

organisms that cause spoilage and illness and can be transferred from hands and surfaces to other food and surfaces. 2.3, 2.4 Good Personal Hygiene Bathe daily Wash hands thoroughly

Wear clean clothes No jewelry, fingernail polish, or false nails! Keep hair clean, neat, restrained in a hat or hairnet. 2.5 Contamination- when harmful things are

present in food, making it unsafe to eat. Direct Contamination-Comes from microorganisms, bacteria and viruses. (Biological) Physical Chemical 2.6 Cross-contamination Cross-contamination- happens when

harmful microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another. 2.7 Foodborne illness outbreak- a foodborne illness that affects two or more people who have eaten the same food. Water and Ice can harbor foodborne

illness Potentially Hazardous Foods- usually moist, high protein foods that have the potential to cause a foodborne illness outbreak. 2.8

F.A.T.T.O.M. FATTOM- the 6 conditions bacteria needs to grow Food- bacteria loves moist, high protein foods Acidity- pH level between 4.6 and 7.5

Temperature- danger zone is 41F-135F Time- no more than 2 hours in TDZ above Oxygen- most need it, some do not to grow Moisture- thrive in moist environments 2.9 Temperature Danger Zone Bacteria grows best in a violation of Time and/or Temperature.

NO MORE THAN 2 HOURS inside the TDZ!!!! 2.10 Thermometers Infrared therm.- measures temp. using infrared technology. Thermocouples= uses a metal probe, digital readout TTI- tag attached to shipment

box/container that tells the temp. Bimetallic- most common, probe, dial reading 2.18 Canned Goods Damaged cans risk Botulism, a deadly bacteria found in improperly canned foods.

Viruses Virus- small, simple organism that can cause disease (Hepatitis A) that is spreading usually by improper or lack or hand washing. Where is it found in food? Non-Potable water (drinking water) Shellfish, especially oysters, mussels, and

clams from polluted water Parasites Organism that needs to live in a host to grow (person, animal or plant) Examples: Roundworms, Trichinosis

(foodborne illness caused by parasite found naturally in pork and game meats) How do I prevent it? Always cook pork and other game meat to the required minimum internal cooking temperatures. Never serve uninspected meats Always wash, rinse and sanitize

equipment and surfaces that have come in contact with the raw meat Fungi Mold- a tangled mass of thousands of tiny mold

plants that can cause allergic reactions, nervous system damage, kidney and liver damage. Some Cheese has natural mold in it. It is not toxic. Yeast

A type of fungus that is known for its ability to spoil food rapidly. Grows in jellies, honey ,cottage cheese and fruit juices

Alcohol smell/taste, bubbles, pink discoloration, slime are all signs of yeast Toxins Poisons. Found in many varieties of fish Only purchase fish from a reputable dealer Scombroid poisoning comes from tuna,

mackerel and mahi-mahi that has been temp. abused Chemical and Physical Hazards All chemicals should be stored away from food in its original container. Physical hazards include broken glass, packaging materials or jewelry that falls into the food.

To Prevent Physical Hazards: Never scoop ice with a glass Replace worn can openers Use frilled toothpicks in sandwiches Put shields on lights over food prep areas Avoid wearing jewelry Discard chipped, cracked dishes, glasses

and tableware. Use only food grade brushes on food. 2.11 Reading Thermometers Insert into thickest part of meat Do not let it touch the container Hold temperature for 15 seconds

Section 2.2 in textbook HACCP SYSTEM 2.12 HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point- specific points through the flow of food where specific action can be taken to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a food safety hazard

Was developed for NASA by the Pillsbury corporation in the 1960s to make sure food was safe for astronauts in space. Principle 1 Conduct a Hazard Analysis Look at menu items for potential Risks (a chance that a condition or set of conditions

will lead to a food safety hazard. Examples: Do recipes have potentially hazardous foods? Do employees practice good hygiene? Is food properly stored, cooked and held? Are the suppliers reputable?

2.13 CCP CCP= Critical Control Point- points where specific action can be taken to eliminate, prevent, or minimize a hazard. Principle 3 Critical Limits

Critical Limit (set boundaries/standards)- a requirement, such as temperature, that must be met to prevent or eliminate the hazard or to reduce it to a safe level.

Examples: Wash hands Wash, rinse, and sanitize food containers and equipment Cook food thoroughly Principal 4 Monitoring Procedures Temperatures of food on a buffet should

be taken every 2 hours and recorded in a log. Principal 5 Corrective Actions Examples: Reheating food to correct temperature Rejecting a shipment of food

Principal 6 Verification Procedures Check to see if the HACCP system in place is working. Avoid Dry Labs- when someone enters a temperature in the record or log book without actually taking the measurement of the temperature.

Principle 7: Record Keeping/Documentation Very valuable if a foodborne illness should occur. Examples:

Keep HACCP recipes up to date Monitor temps regularly Use bound notebooks and written logs 2.14 Flow of Food Flow of Food- the route food takes on its way to being served

2.15-16 Flowchart for Clam Chowder How many CCPs are in the HACCP system for this particular recipe? 5 2.17 Receiving Food service establishments have the

right to refuse a food shipment in order to avoid potentially hazardous foods. 2.19 Receiving Dry Goods Keep receiving area clean, pest free and well lit. Schedule deliveries during non-busy hours only.

2.20 FIFO FIFO (first in, first out)- method of stock rotation and storage that uses older items before new ones. 2.21 Storage Temperatures Dry temperature storage is 50F- 70F with Humidity kept between 50 to 60

percent. 2.22 Thawing Food In refrigerator- thaw raw food on shelves UNDER cooked foods, meats on the bottom. Running Water- avoid splashing water on other food, sanitize sink afterwards. Microwave- only if they are cooked right

away. In cooking- good for burgers and shrimp 2.23 Internal Cooking Temps. Microwave- let food stand 2 minutes after cooking Highlight Poultry

165F, Beef 155F, and Fish 145F 2.24, 2.25, 2.26 Holding Hot/Cold Food Read guidelines aloud on your notes health of our guests depend on it!

The 2.27 Cooling Food Quickly The FDA recommends cooling food from 135F to 70F within 2 hours and from 70F to 41F in an additional 4 hours for a total of 6 hours cooling time. 2.28 Reheating Food

Use thermometers to check the internal temps of food within 2 hours of reheating before serving. If it cannot be reheated to a safe temp in 2 hours, discard it. 2.29 Serving Food Safely Check temps of food every 4 hours Use sneeze guards on buffets

Use clean plates with additional trips to a buffet bar. 2.30 Rule of Thumb- Do not touch the part of a serving utensil, glass, dish

that the customers mouth will touch. 2.32 Clean- free of visible dirt, soil, dirt or food waste.

MUST BE DONE FIRST! Sanitize- reducing the number of microorganisms on a surface to a safe level. DONE AFTER CLEANING AND RINSING! 2.33 Sanitizing Manually

You must always WASH, RINSE, and SANITIZE for 30 SECONDS, then Air Dry using the 3 compartment sink! By hand, use 1 capful of bleach to bucket of warm water using the red

buckets. 2.34 Sanitizing by Machine First, SCRAPE,SCRAPE, SCRAPE off food iems. Load all items in the same direction on the racks Close door firmly, run machine on AUTO, 2 or 4 minute cycle.

DO NOT OPEN THE DOOR during a cycle, you will get burned! 2.35 Storing Chemicals Keep Chemicals in the Laundry Room Do not spray any chemical in the lab 2.36 Equipment Should always be stainless steel Should be unplugged before cleaning

2.37 Master Cleaning Schedule Master cleaning schedule- a schedule or chart showing a cleaning program listing what is to be cleaned, who is to clean it, how it is to be clean, and how often it is to be cleaned.

2.38 Handling Garbage Never throw any item into a garbage container that does not have a liner. Get a bag and put it in the can first! Integrated Pest Management- a system to prevent, control, or eliminate pest infestation. 2.39 Sanitation Inspection

Sanitarian- a person trained in sanitation principles and methods as well as public health. Employed by the state and local health departments.

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