Chapter 5 Enhancing Security Through Physical Controls Purposes of Physical Controls Physical controls serve to reduce risk of loss by: (1) denying unauthorized access. (2) deterring or discouraging attempts to gain unauthorized access. (3) delaying those who attempt to gain unauthorized access. (4) detecting threats, both criminal and
noncriminal. Three Lines of Defense in Physical Security Perimeter of the facility. Fences, gates, locks, lighting, alarms, surveillance systems, signs, dogs, security personnel. Physical layout and neatness. The building exterior. Strong locked doors and windows, limited entrances, secured openings, alarms, surveillance, lighting.
The interior. Locked doors, desks and files. Safes and vaults. Internal alarms and detectors.
Lighting. Mirrors. Bolt-down equipment. Dogs and security personnel. Communication and surveillance systems. Common Types of Safes
Fire resistant. Burglar resistant. Not both. The purpose of the safe guides the choice. New smart safes. Personalized access. An audit trail. Management features.
Ease of use. Basic Security Equipment Locks. Lights. Alarms. Locks Types of locks: Key operated. Best protection: Dead-bolt lock with one-inch throw and antiwrenching collar or a secondary dead-bolt with one-inch throw.
Combination. Card activated. Electronically operated. Lighting Functions Adequate lighting inside and outside a building: Enhances safety.
Deters would-be intruders. Makes detection of actual intruders more probable. A Total Lighting System Four types of lighting: (1) Continuous on a regular schedule, for secure areas. (2) Standby, for occasions when more light is needed. (3) Moveable, for when light is needed in areas not usually lit. (4) Emergency, to be used as an alternate
power source when the regular power source fails. Alarms Alarms available for the three lines of defense: (1) Perimeter alarms-protect fences and gates, exterior doors, windows and other openings. (2) Area or space alarms-protect portion of or total interior of room or building. (3) Point or spot alarms-protect specific items
such as safes, cabinets, valuable articles or small areas. Receiving of Alarms Alarm systems may be: (1) local--sound on premises. (2) proprietary--constantly manned. (3) central station--external observation as part of contracted services. (4) police connected--directed via telephone wired to nearest police. Selecting Physical Controls
Security managers must balance: (1) Aesthetic needs. (2) Operation needs. (3) Security needs. Critical factors in establishing and maintaining physical controls: Common sense. Attention to detail.
Summary Questions What are the 4 purposes served by physical controls? What 3 lines of defense are important in physical security? How can the perimeter, building exterior, and interior be made more secure? What are the 2 common types of safes and why is the distinction important? Summary Questions What constitutes basic security
equipment? What kinds of locks are available and what type of key lock is recommended? What functions are performed by lighting? What are the components of a total lighting system? What types of alarms are available for the 3 lines of defense?
Summary Questions Where can alarms be received? What factors must be balanced in selecting physical controls? What 2 factors are critical in establishing and maintaining physical controls?
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