Chapter 2: Population

Chapter 2: Population

Unit 7 Urban Geography KEY QUESTION When and why did people start living in cities? When and Why Did People Start Living in Cities? Urban: the built-up space of the central city

and suburbs Includes the city and surrounding environs connected to the city Is distinctively nonrural and nonagricultural A city is an agglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Concept caching: Kansas City, MO

Barbara Weightman The Hearths of Urbanization The first agricultural hearth was the area of Southwest Asia called the Fertile Crescent. Agricultural surplus and social stratification enabled cities to stabilize and grow. The leadership class, or urban elite, consisted

of a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources. The Hearths of Urbanization The innovation of the city is called the first urban revolution, and it occurred independently in six separate hearths, a case of independent invention. The six urban hearths are tied closely to agriculture.

The Hearths of Urbanization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mesopotamia, 3500 B.C.E.

Nile River Valley, 3200 B.C.E. Indus River Valley, 2200 B.C.E. Huang He Valley, 1500 B.C.E. Mesoamerica, 1100 B.C.E. Peru, 900 B.C.E. Greece Secondary hearth of civilization Greek Cities

Greece is described as a secondary hearth of urbanization because the Greek city form and function diffused around the world centuries later through European colonialism. Every city had its acropolis, on which the people built the most impressive structures. Agora (market) became the focus of commercial activity. Urbanization diffused from Greece to the Roman Empire.

Rome Urbanization diffused from Greece to the Romans Roman Cities When the Romans succeeded the Greeks (and Etruscans) as rulers of the region, their empire incorporated not only the Mediterranean shores but also a large part of interior Europe and North Africa. The site of a city is its absolute location, often chosen

for its advantages in trade or defense, or as a center for religious practice. The situation of a city is based on its role in the larger, surrounding context: A citys situation changes with times. Ex.: Rome becoming the center of the Roman Catholic Church. Roman Cities Urban morphology: a citys layout; its physical form

and structure. Whenever possible, Romans adopted the way the Greeks planned their colonial cities; in a rectangular, grid pattern. Functional zonation reveals how different areas or segments of a city serve different purposes or functions within the city. Ex.: the Forum Europe after Rome and Greece

1350-1500 C.E. Urban Growth After Greece and RomeEuropes Middle Ages, urbanization During continued vigorously outside of Europe. In West Africa, trading cities developed along the southern margin of the Sahara. The Americas also experienced significant urban growth, especially within Mayan and

Aztec empires. Site and Situation during European Exploration The relative importance of the interior trade routes changed when European maritime exploration and overseas colonization ushered in an era of oceanic, worldwide trade. The situation of cities like Paris and Xian changed from being crucial in an interior

trading route to being left out of an oceanic trade. After European exploration took off during the 1400s, the dominance of interior cities declined. Site and Situation during European Exploration Coastal cities remained crucial after exploration led to colonialism.

The trade networks European powers commanded (including the slave trade) brought unprecedented riches to Europes burgeoning medieval cities, such as Amsterdam (the Netherlands), London (England), Lisbon (Portugal), Liverpool (England), and Seville (Spain) As a result, cities that thrived during mercantilism took on similar properties

A Second Urban Revolution 1800-1950 A Second Urban Revolution Around 1800, Western Europe was still overwhelmingly rural. As thousands migrated to the cities with industrialization, cities had to adapt to the mushrooming population, the proliferation of factories and supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the

construction of tenements for the growing labor force. A Second Agricultural Revolution During the late seventeenth century and into the eighteenth century, Europeans invented a series of important improvements in agriculture. Examples: improved organization of production, market collaboration, and storage capacities.

Many industrial cities grew from small villages or along canal and river routes. When industrialization diffused from Great Britain to the European mainland, the places most ready for industrialization had undergone their own second agricultural

revolution, had surplus capital from mercantilism and colonialism, and were located near coal fields. The Chaotic Industrial City With industrialization, cities became unregulated jumbles of activity. Living conditions were dreadful for workers in cities, and working conditions were shocking.

The soot-covered cities of the British Midlands were deemed the black towns. The Chaotic Industrial City In mid-1800s, as Karl Marx and Frederick Engels encouraged workers of the world to unite, conditions in European manufacturing

cities gradually improved. Concept Caching: Duisburg, Germany KEY QUESTION Where are cities located and why?

Where Are Cities Located and Why? Urban geographers discovered that every city and town has a trade area, an adjacent region within which its influence is dominant. Three key components arise frequently in urban geography: population, trade area, and distance. Rank and Size in the Urban Matrix The rank-size rule holds that in a model urban

hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. (German Felix Auerbach, linguist George Zipf) Random growth (chance) and economies of scale (efficiency) explain why the rank-size rule works where it does. The rank-size rule does not apply in all countries, especially countries with one dominant city. Mark Jefferson: A primate city is a countrys leading city, always disproportionately large and

exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. Central Place Theory Central place theory: Walter Christaller had five assumptions: 1. The surface of the ideal region would be flat and have no physical barriers. 2. Soil fertility would be the same everywhere. 3. Population and purchasing power would be evenly

distributed. 4. The region would have a uniform transportation network to permit direct travel from each settlement to the other. 5. From any given place, a good or service could be sold in all directions out to a certain distance. Central Place Theory

Each central place has a surrounding complementary region, an exclusive trade area within which the town has a monopoly on the sale of certain goods. Hexagonal Hinterlands

Christaller chose perfectly fitted hexagonal regions as the shape of each trade area. Central Places Today New factors, forces, and conditions not

anticipated by Christallers models and theories make them less relevant today. Ex.: The Sun Belt phenomenon: the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the South and Southwest. KEY QUESTION How are cities organized and how do they function?

Models of the City Functional zonation: the division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions). Functional Zones Zone is typically preceded by a descriptor that conveys the purpose of that area of the city. Most models define the key economic zone of the

city as the central business district (CBD). Central city describes the urban area that is not suburban. In effect, central city refers to the older city as opposed to the newer suburbs. A suburb is an outlying, functionally uniform part of an urban area, and is often (but not always) adjacent to the central city. Suburbanization is the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized, as people and

businesses from the city move to these spaces. Modeling the North American City Concentric zone model: resulted from sociologist Ernest Burgesss study of Chicago in the 1920s. Burgesss model divides the city into five concentric zones, defined by their function: 1. CBD is itself subdivided into several subdistricts. 2. Zone of transition is characterized by

residential deterioration and encroachment by business and light manufacturing. 3. Zone 3 is a ring of closely spaced but adequate homes occupied by the blue-collar labor force. 4. Zone 4 consists of middle-class residences. 5. Zone 5 is the suburban ring. Modeling the North American City Sector model: Homer Hoyt The city grows outward from the center, so a

low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the citys outer edge, creating zones that are shaped like a piece of pie. The pie-shaped pieces describe the high-rent residential, intermediate rent residential, lowrent residential, education and recreation, transportation, and industrial sectors. Modeling the North American City Multiple nuclei model: Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman

This model recognizes that the CBD was losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area. Edge cities: Suburban downtowns developed mainly around big regional shopping centers; they attracted industrial parks, office complexes, hotels, restaurants, enter-tainment facilities, and sports stadiums.

Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Primate cities in developing countries are called megacities when the city has a large population, a vast territorial extent, rapid in-migration, and a strained, inadequate

infrastructure. Mumbai, India Harm de Blij The South American City Griffin-Ford model South American cities blend traditional elements of South American culture with globalization forces that are reshaping

the urban scene, combining radial sectors and concentric zones. The thriving CBD anchors the model. Shantytowns are unplanned groups of crude dwellings and shelters made of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard that develop around cities. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

The African City The imprint of European colonialism can still be seen in many African cities. During colonialism, Europeans laid out prominent urban centers. The centers of South Africas major cities (Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban) remain essentially Western. Studies of African cities indicate that the central

city often consists of not one but three CBDs: a remnant of the colonial CBD, an informal and sometimes periodic market zone, and a transitional business center where commerce is conducted. The Southeast Asian City A model of land use in the

medium-sized Southeast Asian city includes sectors and zones within each sector. KEY QUESTION How do people shape cities?

How Do People Shape Cities? Zoning laws: Cities define areas of the city and designate the kinds of development allowed in each zone. Figure 9.28 Lom, Togo. The citys landscape reflects a clear dichotomy between the haves and have-nots. Alexander B. Murphy.

Figure 9.29 Tokyo, Japan. The citys landscape reflects the presence of a large middle class in a densely populated city. iStockphoto. Shaping Cities in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Particularly in the economic periphery, new arrivals

(and long-term residents) crowd together in overpopulated apartments, dismal tenements, and teeming slums. Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforceable zoning laws. Across the global periphery, the one trait all major cities display is the stark contrast between the wealthy and poor. Shaping Cities in the Global Core

During the segregation era in the United States, Realtors, financial lenders, and city governments defined and segregated spaces in urban environments. Ex.: redlining, blockbusting White flightmovement of whites from the city and adjacent neighborhoods to the outlying suburbs. In order to counter the suburbanization trend, city

governments are encouraging commercialization of the central business district and gentrification of neighborhoods in and around the central business district. Commercialization entails transforming the central business district into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike. Gentrification is the rehabilitation of houses in older neighborhoods. Teardowns: suburban homes meant for demolition;

the intention is to replace them with McMansions. Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism Urban sprawl: unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Urban Sprawl and New Urbanism To counter urban sprawl, a group of architects, urban planners, and developer outlined an urban design vision they call new urbanism: development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs Other critics say communities that new urbanists form through their projects are exclusionary and deepen the racial segregation of cities.

Gated Communities Fenced-in neighborhoods with controlled access gates for people and automobiles. Main objective is to create a space of safety within the uncertain urban world. Secondary objective is to maintain or increase housing values in the neighborhood through enforcement of the neighborhood associations bylaws. Many fear that the gated communities are a new form

of segregation. Ethnic Neighborhoods in the European City Ethnic neighborhoods in European cities are typically affiliated with migrants from former colonies. Migration to Europe is constrained by government policies and laws. European cities are typically more compact, densely populated, and walkable than American cities.

Housing in the European city is often combined with places of work. Government Policy and Immigrant Accommodation Whether a public housing zone is divided into ethnic neighborhoods in a European city depends in large part on government policy. Brussels, Belgium: has very little public housing; immigrants live in privately owned rentals throughout

the city. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: has a great deal of public housing and few ethnic neighborhoods within the public housing units. Ethnic Neighborhoods in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery City In cities of the periphery and semiperiphery, a sea of slum development typically begins where the permanent buildings end, in some cases engulfing and

dwarfing the central city. Millions of migrants travel to such environments every year. City governments do not have the resources to adequately educate, medicate, or police the burgeoning populations. The vast slums of cities in poorer parts of the world are typically ethnically delineated, with new arrivals precariously accommodated.

Power and Ethnicity The settlement patterns of cities developed during the colonial period often persist long after The Informal Economy The economy that is not taxed and is not counted toward a countrys gross national income Remittances

From Colonial to Global CBD Geographers Richard Grant and Jan Nijman documented globalization in former colonial port cities, including Mumbai, India. A new spatially demarcated foreign presence has arisen. The city now has a global CBD at the heart of the original colonial city, housing mostly foreign corporations and multinational companies and linked

mainly to the global economy. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. KEY QUESTION What role do cities play in globalization? World cities function at the global scale, beyond the

reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the world economy. Felsenstein, Schamp, and Shachar: The world city is a node in globalization, reflecting processes that have redrawn the limits on spatial interaction. World cities do not exist merely to service players in the global economy. Some countries such as the United States and Germany have two or more world cities within their state borders.

Cities as Spaces of Consumption Media corporations are helping transform urban centers into major entertainment districts where items are consumed. Closure What is the difference between gentrification and


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