Chapter 28 Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

Biology Concepts & Applications 10 Edition Chapter 28 Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

28.1 Overview of Animal Body Plans Tissue found in all vertebrate bodies Epithelial tissue: covers body surfaces; lines internal cavities Connective tissue: holds body parts together; provides structural support Muscle tissue: moves the body or its parts Nervous tissue: detects stimuli; relays information Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Levels of Organization Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Fluids of the Animal Body An animal body consists mainly of water with dissolved salts, proteins, etc.

Most of this fluid resides inside cells The rest is extracellular fluid: internal environment in which body cells live In vertebrates, extracellular fluid consists mainly of interstitial fluid: fluid between cells Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Evolution of Animal Body Plans

Structural traits (anatomy) evolve in concert with functional traits (physiology) Physical laws constrain the evolution of body structure Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Structure Meets Function Examples of structure evolving to meet function

Animals with a massive body evolved a mechanism for distributing materialthe circulatory system Land animals evolved a structure for extracting oxygen from airthe lungs Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Architectural Constraints An existing body framework imposes architectural

constraints Example: the ancestors of all modern land vertebrates had a body plan with four limbs When wings evolved in birds and bats, they did so by modification of existing forelimbs, not by new limbs sprouting Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

28.2 Epithelial Tissues Sheetlike tissue consisting of tightly packed cells with little extracellular material between them One surface of an epithelium faces the environment or some body fluid The opposite surface is glued to an underlying tissue by a basement membrane A layer of proteins secreted by the epithelium Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Cell Junctions Tight junctions occur only in epithelial tissue Join plasma membranes of adjacent cells to prevent fluid from leaking between them Adhering junctions are present in epithelial tissue that undergoes mechanical stress Function like snaps to connect adjacent cells but do not form a tight seal

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Types of Epithelial Tissue (1 of 3) Different types of epithelia differ in thickness and cell shapes A simple epithelium is one cell thick, whereas stratified epithelium has multiple cell layers Cells in squamous epithelium are flattened or scalelike

Cells of cuboidal epithelium are short cylinders Cells in columnar epithelium are tall Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Types of Epithelial Tissue (2 of 3) Simple squamous epithelium functions in the exchange of materials Cells of cuboidal and columnar epithelium function

in absorption and secretion Microvilli: thin projections from the plasma membrane of some epithelial cells; increase the surface area of the cell Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Types of Epithelial Tissue (3 of 3) In some tissues (e.g., upper airways and oviducts), the epithelial surface has cilia

Other epithelia specialize in secretion of substances that function outside the cell Exocrine gland: secretes milk, sweat, saliva, or some other substance through a duct Endocrine gland: ductless gland; secretes hormones Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Simple Epithelium

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Epithelial Renewal and Cancer Epithelia is constantly renewed in animals This renewal requires many cell divisions Many opportunities for cancer-causing DNA replication errors

Epithelium is therefore the tissue most likely to become cancerous Carcinoma = epithelial cell cancer Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 28.3 Connective Tissues Consist of cells scattered within an extracellular matrix of their own secretions

Most connective tissue contains fibroblasts These cells secrete an extracellular matrix containing polysaccharides and the proteins collagen and elastin Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Types of Connective Tissue (1 of 2) Loose connective tissue: fibroblasts and fibers scattered in a gel-like matrix

Dense, irregular connective tissue: randomly arranged fibers and scattered fibroblasts Dense, regular connective tissue: fibroblasts arrayed between parallel arrangements of fibers Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Types of Connective Tissue (2 of 2) Adipose tissue: cells that make and store

triglycerides; specialize in fat storage Cartilage: cells surrounded by a rubbery matrix of their own secretions Bone tissue: cells surrounded by a mineralhardened matrix of their own secretions Blood: plasma and cellular components (red cells, white cells, and platelets) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Connective Tissue Types (1 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Connective Tissue Types (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Blubber: Specialized Adipose Tissue Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 28.4 Muscle Tissues (1 of 2) Cells that contract (shorten) in response to stimulation Coordinated contractions of layers or rings of muscles

move the body or propel material through Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Muscle Tissues (2 of 2) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Skeletal Muscle Helps move and maintain the positions of the body and its parts Contains parallel arrays of long, cylindrical muscle fibers Voluntary muscles because most can be contracted purposefully Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart wall Appears striated Has branching cells, each with a single nucleus Contract as a unit Due to presence of gap junctions Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Smooth Muscle Found in the wall of some blood vessels and soft internal organs (e.g., stomach, uterus, and bladder) Unbranched cells contain a nucleus at their center and are tapered at both ends Contractile units are not arranged in a repeating fashion; does not appear striated Involuntary muscle: cannot be contracted at will

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 28.5 Nervous Tissues Allows an animal to collect and integrate information about its internal and external environment Controls the activity of glands and muscles Main tissue of the vertebrate brain and spinal cord and of the nerves that extend through the body

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Two Types of Cells (1 of 2) Neurons: cells that transmit electrical signals along their plasma membrane and send chemical messages to other cells Central cell body: contains nucleus and other organelles Cytoplasmic extensions project from the cell body; function to receive and send electrochemical signals

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Two Types of Cells (2 of 2) Neuroglial cells Help position neurons Provide metabolic support to neurons Wrap around the signal-sending cytoplasmic extensions of neurons

Increases the rate at which electrical signals travel along the neurons Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Neuron and Neuroglia Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or

otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Two Types of Nervous Tissue Brain and spinal cord contain two visually distinct types of tissue White matter: signal-sending axons of neurons and the neuroglial cells wrapping them Gray matter: other types of neuroglia and most neuron cell bodies and signal-receiving dendrites Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. White and Gray Matter Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 28.6 Organ Systems (1 of 5) Tissues interact structurally and functionally in

organs Organs in turn interact in organ systems Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Organ Systems (2 of 5) Integumentary system: skin and skin-derived structures (e.g., hair and nails) Nervous system: bodys main control center (brain,

spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs) Endocrine system: controls other organ systems Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Organ Systems (3 of 5) Muscular system: moves the body and its parts; regulates body temperature Skeletal system: protects internal organs, stores

minerals, and produces blood cells Circulatory system: heart and blood vessels; delivers oxygen and nutrients and clears wastes Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Organ Systems (4 of 5) Lymphatic system: moves fluid (lymph) from tissues to blood and organs; protects the body against

pathogens Respiratory system: lungs and airways; delivers oxygen from air to blood and expels carbon dioxide Digestive system: takes in and breaks down food; delivers nutrients to blood and eliminates undigested wastes Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Organ Systems (5 of 5) Urinary system: kidneys, bladder, etc.; removes wastes from blood and adjusts blood volume and solute composition Reproductive system: gamete-making organs (ovaries or testes) In females, the uterus is the organ in which offspring develop Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Organ System Interactions Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Human Organ Systems (1 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in

whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Human Organ Systems (2 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Human Organ Systems (3 of 4)

Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Human Organ Systems (4 of 4) Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Body Cavities

Body cavities that hold human organs Cranial cavity Spinal cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity

Pelvic cavity Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Human Body Cavities Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

28.7 Integument Components of human skin Epidermis: stratified squamous epithelium with an abundance of adhering junctions Human epidermis consists mainly of keratinocytes that make the waterproof protein keratin Dermis: consists primarily of dense connective tissue with stretch-resistant elastin fibers and supportive collagen fibers

Blood vessels, lymph vessels, and sensory receptors weave through the dermis Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Hair Visible portion of hair is the remains of keratinocytes that divided in the hair follicle Divide every 2472 hours

Pushed away from follicle and out of skin as they divide Die before reaching the surface Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Sun and the Skin Melanin: protects skin by absorbing ultraviolet (UV) radiation Some UV exposure is a good thing; it stimulates skin to

produce a molecule that the body converts to vitamin D Variations in skin color among human populations probably evolved as adaptations to differences in sunlight exposure Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 28.8 Negative Feedback in Homeostasis

In vertebrates, homeostasis involves interactions among sensory receptors, the brain, and muscles and glands Sensory receptor: responds to a specific stimulus (e.g., temperature or light) Negative feedback mechanism: change causes a response that reverses the change Important for homeostasis Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a

password-protected website for classroom use. Negative Feedback Mechanism Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Application: Growing Replacement Tissues Animals commonly replace tissues lost to injury Invertebrates have the greatest capacity for regeneration

Example: some sea stars can regrow an entire body from a single arm and a bit of the central disk Stem cells can divide and produce more stem cells or differentiate into specialized cells Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Stem Cells

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent Can become any of the cells in the human body Other stem cells are more restricted Skin and blood are replaced continually from specialized stem cell populations Induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) are lab made Function like embryonic stem cells Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or

in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Sea Star Regenerating Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Discuss Why is blooda liquidconsidered a connective

tissue? What is liposuction? Does it permanently remove adipose tissue from the treated areas? Why is there a limit to the amount of adipose tissue that can be safely removed from the body at one time? Would the use of IPSCs end the ethical debate about the use of stem cells? Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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