CHAPTER 2 The Engineering Profession Chapter Overview What is Engineering? The Engineering Design Process Rewards and Opportunities of an Engineering Career Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century Engineering Disciplines Engineering Job Functions Employment Opportunities
Important Fields for the Future Engineering as a Profession What is Engineering? If someone (father, grandmother, aunt, friend, fellow student) asked you the question: What is engineering? How would you respond? Engineering is the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of [hu]mankind. Learning More about Engineering Study Chapter 2 of Studying Engineering Search the web Talk to engineering professionals Attend career days Other? The Engineering Design Process
1 - Customer need or business opportunity 2 - Problem definition/specifications and constraints 3 - Data and information collection 4 - Development of alternative designs 5 - Evaluation of designs/selection of optimal design 6 - Implementation of optimal design 7 - Testing and evaluation of the design How Things Work Internet (e.g., www.howstuffworks.com) Trade magazines (e.g., Popular Mechanics, PC World, etc.) Engineering society websites and magazines (e.g., www.spectrum.ieee.org)
Reverse engineering Case Study Human-Powered Helicopter Sikorsky Prize History of human-powered helicopters University of Maryland Gamera Project Job Satisfaction Number one cause of unhappiness among people in the U.S. Financial problems?No No Relationship problems?
Health problems?No Job dissatisfaction?Yes ! What is it about engineering that is so satisfying? Rewards and Opportunities of an Engineering Career Varied opportunities 1. Challenging work 3. Intellectual development 4. Social impact 5. Financial security 6. Prestige 7. Professional environment 8. Understanding how things work 9. Creative thinking 10. Self esteem
2. Varied Opportunities The day you walk down the aisle to receive your degree in engineering, you have closed no doors. There is nothing you cannot become from that day forward!!! People Educated as Engineers Engineer Profession Jimmy Carter President of the United States Alfred Hitchcock Film Director/Producer
Eleanor Baum First Woman Dean of Engineering Herbie Hancock Jazz Musician Frank Capra American Film Director Paul MacCready Inventor/Winner of Kremer Prize Ellen Ochoa Space Shuttle Astronaut Hyman G. Rickover Father of the Nuclear Navy Bill Nye
Host of TV Show Bill Nye, The Science Guy Boris Yeltsin President of Russia Alexander Calder Sculptor Bill Koch Yachtsman/Captain of America Cup Team Engineer Profession W. Edwards Deming Father of Modern Management Practice (TQM)
Grace Murray Hopper U.S. Navy Rear Admiral/Computer Engineer Ming Tsai Restaurateur and Star on TVs Food Network Hu Jintao President of the Peoples Republic of China Montel Williams Syndicated Talk Show Host John H. Sununu Political Pundit/Governor of New Hampshire Samuel Bodman
U.S. Secretary of Energy Donald Thompson CEO and President, McDonalds Corp. Rowan Atkinson British Actor/Comedian/Screenwriter Rudolph Diesel Inventor of the Diesel Engine Engineer Michael Bloomberg Profession Billionaire/Mayor of New York City Lonnie G. Johnson Inventor (SuperSoaker)
A. Scott Crossfield X-15 Test Pilot Don Louis A. Ferre Governor of Puerto Rico Yasser Arafat Palestinian Leader/Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Tom Landry Dallas Cowboys Head Coach Igor Sikorsky Inventor of Single Rotor Helicopter Mohamed Morsi President of Egypt
Shiela Widnall Secretary of the Air Force David A. Wolf Astronaut/Medical Doctor/Electrical Engineer Robert A. Moog Father of Synthetic Music Chester Carlson Inventor of Xerox Process John A. McCone Director of Central Intelligence Agency Arthur C. Nielsen Developer of Nielsen TV Ratings
Financial Reward Beginning Offers to 2012 Bachelors Degree Graduates Discipline Engineering Computer Sciences Business Health Sciences (including Nursing) Mathematics and Sciences Communications Education Humanities & Social Sciences Average for All Disciplines Average Salary $60,639 60,038 51,541 46,567 42,355 42,286 39,080 36,319 $44,259 Prestige
Engineers are critical to: International competitiveness Standard of living National security Personal health Public safety Greatest Engineering Achievements of 20th Century 20. High performance materials 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 13. 12. 11. Nuclear technologies Laser and fiber optics Petroleum and gas technologies Health technologies
Household appliances Imaging technologies Internet Space exploration Interstate highways Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century (continued) 10. Air-conditioning and refrigeration 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Telephone Computers Agricultural mechanization Radio and television
Electronics Safe and abundant water Airplane Automobile Electrification Engineering Disciplines Discipline Mechanical engineering Civil engineering Electrical and electronics engineering Computer engineering Chemical engineering Bioengineering and biomedical engineering Industrial engineering Aerospace engineering General engineering Other (20 disciplines) # of Accredited Programs B.S. Degrees
379 3,423 3,286 2,812 8,671 Engineering Job Functions Analysis Design Test Development Sales Research Management Consulting Teaching Entrepreneurshi p Employment Areas for Individuals with Engineering Degrees Employment Area
Business/Industry Federal Government State/Local Government Educational Institutions Self-Employed Total Percentage 80.3% 5.4% 5.7% 5.1% 3.5% 100% Manufacturing Industry Sectors Employing Largest Number of Engineers
Computer and electronic product Transportation equipment Machinery Fabricated metal product Chemical Electronic equipment, appliance, and component Non-manufacturing Industry Sectors Employing Largest Number of Engineers Professional, scientific, and technical services Information
Construction Wholesale trade Administrative and support Management of companies and enterprises Utilities Mining 50 Greatest Technological Inventions of Past 25 Years 50 to 41 40 to 31 30 to 21 20 to 11 10 to 1 Hybrid cars Lithium rechargeable Home audio editing batteries JPEG
Genetic sequencing Mini disc DVD Home video editing Microblogging Web-based email Color plasma display CD-R Camcorders Caller ID Search engines Optical computer mouse Voice mail
Digital SLR cameras Mobile broadband Smart phones LED headlights Online stock trading Multi-core processors Blogs Text messaging Electronic tolls Doppler radar Satellite radio MP3 players
Wi-Fi OLED TV MPEG-4 Flip phones Electronic word processing MP3 Blu-ray Flash memory Digital HDTV DVR Broadband Internet Satellite TV
Bluetooth Instant messaging DNA profiling Personal computers Recordable DVDs Commercialized GPS Consumer digital cameras Social networking service World Wide Web Major Events and Changes Affecting the Future
Fall of the Berlin Wall Advances in computer technology Advances in communications The knowledge and information explosion Globalization (outsourcing, off-shoring) Environmental challenges/sustainability World population explosion Democratization Pandemic diseases/drug resistant germs Climate change/natural disasters Nuclear proliferation Events of September 11, 2001/threat of terrorism
14 Grand Challenges for Engineering 1.Make solar energy economical 2.Provide energy from fusion 3.Develop carbon sequestration methods 4. Manage the nitrogen cycle 5. Provide access to clean water 6. Restore and improve urban infrastructure 7. Advance health informatics 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering (continued) 8. Engineer better medicines 9. Reverse-engineer the brain 10.Prevent nuclear terror 11.Secure cyberspace 12.Enhance virtual reality 13.Advance personalized learning 14.Engineer the tools of scientific discovery
Sustainability Sustainability is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Examples of problems Global warming/climate change Ozone depletion Water quality and quantity Air pollution Dependence on fossil fuels/energy crisis Unsustainable agriculture Threat of disease
Waste management and land pollution Over-consumption World hunger Loss of ecosystems/deforestation/ animal extinction Attributes of Green Engineering and Sustainable Designs Designs that use less energy or reduce emission
Designs with minimal carbon footprints Designs that reduce material usage or waste in manufacturing Designs with no toxic materials Designs that comply with environmental standards and regulations Manufacturing processes that use less energy and natural resources Products that can be disposed of safely, including biodegradable materials and packaging Manufacturing processes that minimize the usage or production of substances of concern Designs that use renewable/recyclable/recycled materials Products that require less packaging Engineering as a Profession Characteristics of a learned profession Professional registration Graduation from ABET-accredited engineering program Pass Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (FE) Complete four years of acceptable engineering practice Pass the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Exam Professional societies
Group Discussion Exercise Motorized Beach Wheelchair Working in your group, develop a list of specifications for a motorized wheel chair that could be used on a sandy beach. Appoint a leader to keep the discussion on topic and a recorder to record and report what you come up with Alternative Group Discussion Learning More About Engineering In your group, brainstorm a list of tangible things you can do to learn more about engineering. Be bold and creative Appoint a leader to keep the discussion on topic and a recorder to record and report what you come up with.
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