Chapter 3 Effects of IT on Strategy and Competition

Chapter 3 Effects of IT on Strategy and Competition

Chapter 5 B2B E-Commerce: Selling and Buying in Private EMarkets Jason C.H. Chen, Ph.D. Professor of MIS Graduate School of Business Gonzaga University Spokane, WA 99223 USA [email protected] Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Learning Objectives 1. Describe the B2B field. 2. Describe the major types of B2B models. 3. Discuss the characteristics of the sell-side marketplace, including auctions. 4. Describe the sell-side intermediary models. 5. Describe the characteristics of the buy-side marketplace and e-procurement.

6. Explain how reverse auctions work in B2B. Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Learning Objectives 7. Describe B2B aggregation and group purchasing models. 8. Describe other procurement methods. 9. Explain how B2B administrative tasks can be automated. 10. Describe infrastructure and standards requirements for B2B. 11. Describe Web EDI, XML, and Web Services. Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.1 Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC business-to-business e-commerce (B2B EC) Transactions between businesses conducted

electronically over the Internet, extranets, intranets, or private networks; also known as eB2B (electronic B2B) or just B2B Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Focus on e-Business Applications Knowledge Management/Business Intelligence E-Commerce Procurement Network M:1 Trading Network M:N

E-Channel Management 1:N E-Portal Management E-Business, E-Services SCM/ERP/Legacy Appls Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Businesses & Consumers (CRM) Businesses (SRM) E-Customer Relationship Exhibit 5.1 Generations of B2B E-Commerce (Key Drivers for B2B E-Commerce)

Non-IT Application Management Collaboration With Suppliers And Buyer Integration e-Government Collaborative Commerce Personalize And Customize Mobile Commerce e-CRM

e-Marketplaces Exchange Publish And Promote Online Ordering B2C, B2B Actions e-Learning Business values Multichannel 1st

Generation 1998 2nd Generation 1999 3rd Generation 2000 4th Generation 2001 Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Internal/External Business

Process Management Web Services Intelligent Systems Expert Sales System 5th (current) Generation 2002 and Beyond Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC (cont.) B2B characteristics Parties to the transaction Online intermediary: An online third party that brokers a transaction online between a buyer and a seller; can be virtual or click-and-mortar

Types of transactions Spot buying: The purchase of goods and services as they are needed, usually at prevailing market prices Strategic (systematic) sourcing: Purchases involving long-term contracts that are usually based on private negotiations between sellers and buyers Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC (cont.) Basic B2B transaction types Sell -side (1:M) One seller to many buyers Buy -side (M:1) One buyer from many sellers Exchanges (M:M)

Many sellers to many buyers Collaborative commerce(M and Connected) and supply chain improvement Communication and sharing of information, design, and planning among business partners Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC (cont.) Collaborative commerce (C-commerce) Communication, design, planning, and information sharing among business partners To qualify as C-commerce, the activities that

are shared must represent far more than just financial transactions (e.g., design, manufacture, or management) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC The Basic Types of B2B E-Marketplaces and Services One-to-many and many-to-one: private e-marketplaces company-centric EC E-commerce that focuses on a single companys buying needs (many-to-one, or buy-side) or selling needs (one-to-many, or sell-side) private e-marketplaces Markets in which the individual sell-side or buy-side company has complete control over participation in the selling or buying transaction

- Intermediaries Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC Many-to-many: exchanges exchanges (trading communities or trading exchanges) Many-to-many e-marketplaces, usually owned and run by a third party or a consortium, in which many buyers and many sellers meet electronically to trade with each other public e-marketplaces Third-party exchanges that are open to all interested parties (sellers and buyers) Supply chain activities and collaborative commerce B2B2C Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC B2B Characteristics Parties to the transaction: sellers, buyers, and intermediaries online intermediary An online third party that brokers a transaction online between a buyer and a seller; may be virtual or click-and-mortar Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC Types of materials traded direct materials Materials used in the production of a product (e.g., steel in a car or paper in a book)

indirect materials Materials used to support production (e.g., office supplies or light bulbs) MRO (maintenance, repair, and operation) Indirect materials used in activities that support production nonproduction materials. Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC (cont.) Direction of trade Vertical marketplaces: Markets that deal with one industry or industry segment (e.g., electronics, cars, steel, chemicals) Horizontal marketplaces: Markets that concentrate on a service, material, or a product that is used in all types of industries (e.g., office supplies, PCs) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC SUPPLY CHAIN RELATIONSHIPS IN B2B The supply chain process consists of a number of interrelated subprocesses and roles Acquisition of materials from suppliers Processing of a product or service Packaging it and moving it to distributors and retailers The eventual purchase of a product by the end consumer A B2B private e-marketplace provides a company with high supply chain power and high capabilities for online interactions

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC Virtual Service Industries in B2B Travel and hospitality services Real estate Financial services Online stock trading Online financing Other online services

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC Benefits of B2B Eliminates paper and reduces administrative costs. Expedites cycle time Lowers search costs and time for buyers Increases productivity of employees dealing with buying and/or selling Reduces errors and improves quality of services.

Reduces inventory levels and costs Increases production flexibility, permitting just-in-time delivery Facilitates mass customization Increases opportunities for collaboration Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Concepts, Characteristics, and Models of B2B EC The Limitations of B2B Channel conflict Operation of public exchanges Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.2 One-to-Many: Sell-Side E-Marketplaces sell-side e-marketplace

A Web-based marketplace in which one company sells to many business buyers from e-catalogs or auctions, frequently over an extranet B2B Sellers Customer Service Three major direct sales methods: 1. selling from electronic catalogs 2. selling via forward auctions (GM case) 3. one-to-one selling Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-to-Many: Sell-Side E-Marketplaces One seller Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-to-Many:

Sell-Side E-Marketplaces Direct Sales from Catalogs Configuration and customization Benefits and limitations of direct sales from catalogs The benefits of direct sales are similar to that of B2C Limitations How to find a buyer Channel conflicts with their existing distribution systems The cost to the customers can be high Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-to-Many: Sell-Side E-Marketplaces Direct Sales: The Example of Cisco Systems Customer service Online ordering by customers Tracking order status

Benefits Reduced operating costs for order taking Improved quality Reduced technical support staff cost Reduced software distribution costs Faster service Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-to-Many: Sell-Side Marketplaces (cont.) Major benefits of direct sales are:

Lower order-processing costs and less paperwork A faster ordering cycle Fewer errors in ordering and product configuration Lower search costs of products for buyers Lower search costs of finding buyers for sellers Sellers can advertise and communicate online Lower logistics costs Ability to offer different catalogs and prices to different customers Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.3 Selling via Intermediaries and Distributors Manufacturers frequently use intermediaries to distribute their products to a large number of buyers, known as distributors The intermediaries usually buy products

from many vendors and aggregate them into one catalog from which they sell Now, many of these distributors also are selling online Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.4 Selling via Auctions Using Auctions on the Sell Side Revenue generation Cost savings Increased stickiness Member acquisition and retention

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Selling via Auctions Auctioning from the Companys Own Site Why should a company pay a commission to an intermediary if the intermediary cannot provide the company with added value If a company decides to auction from its own site, it will have to pay for infrastructure and operate and maintain the auction site Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Selling via Auctions Using Intermediaries in Auctions An intermediary may conduct private auctions for a seller, either from the intermediarys or the sellers site A company may choose to conduct auctions in a public

marketplace, using a third-party hosting company Benefits No additional resources are required No hiring costs or opportunity costs associated with the redeployment of corporate resources Offer fast time-to-market Billing and collection efforts, are handled by the intermediary rather than the company Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Sell-Side Cases I (Cisco) Direct sales: Cisco Systems Worlds leading producer of routers, switches, and network interconnection services Ciscos portal began with technical support for customers and developed into one of the worlds largest direct sales EC sites Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Sell-Side Cases (cont.) Customer service Applications offered: software downloads defect tracking technical advice 85% of customer service inquiries and 95% of software updates are delivered online Online ordering by customers Provides online pricing and configuration tools to customers 98% are now placed through Cisco Connection Online (CCO) Order status Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Sell-Side Cases I (Cisco) Summary Direct Sales: The Example of Cisco Systems Customer service Online ordering by customers Tracking order status Benefits Reduced operating costs for order taking Improved quality Reduced technical support staff cost Reduced software distribution costs Faster service Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Sell-Side Case II - Boeing B2B intermediary: Boeings parts marketplace Worlds largest maker of airplanes for commercial and military customers Major goal of Boeings intermediary parts market,

called PART is supporting customers maintenance needs as a customer service Online strategy is to provide a single point of online access through which airlines (buyers) and the maintenance and parts providers (suppliers) can access data about the parts they need Began using traditional EDI Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Sell-Side Cases (cont.) 1996, Boeing introduced its PART page on the Internet Customers around the world could check parts availability and pricing order parts track order status Less than a year later, about 50 percent of Boeings customers used PART for parts

orders and customer service inquiries Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Sell-Side Cases (cont.) Boeing OnLine Data (BOLD) enables mechanics and technicians at the airport to access the technical manuals they need for repairs These manuals are now available in digital form, and mechanics and technicians can access them via wireline or wireless devices Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Examples Examples of of Different Different B2B B2B E-Commerce

E-Commerce Sites Sites Used Used by by Organizational Organizational Buyers Buyers (and (and Sellers) Sellers) All sellers and buyers at all levels Collaboration Hub Best search tool sites

Exchanges Vertical depth across firms at different levels of production & distribution process Communities Procurement Hub Catalog site Best search tool sites One of two levels (a seller to a buyer) One

business One specific industry Horizontal breadth of goods and services Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Many industries Striving for Competitive Advantage Firm level: Industry & Competitive Analysis Competitive Forces Model Competitive Strategy Business level

Value-Chain Analysis Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce PORTERS FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL NEW MARKET ENTRANTS Threats Switching cost Access to distribution channels Economies of scale THE FIRM

INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Cost-effectiveness Market access Differentiation of product or service Selection of suppler Threat of backward integration SUPPLIERS SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS & SERVICES Bargaining power

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Dr. Chen, The Trends of the Information Systems Technology Redefine products and services Improve price/performance Buyer selection Switching costs Differentiation CUSTOMERS N TM -37 The Five Forces Model and IS The Five Forces Model provides a way to think

about how information resources can create competitive advantage. Using Porters Model, General Managers can: Identify key sources of competition they face. Recognize uses of information resources to enhance their competitive position against competitive threats Consider likely changes in competitive threats over time N Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Porters Five Forces Model and Value Chain The value chain model highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can be best applied and where information systems are most likely to have a

strategic impact. Therefore, the value chain model can be employed to identify specific, critical leverage points where a firm can use IT most effectively to enhance its competitive position. Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Figure 1.6 (2.4) Process View of the Firm: The Value Chain e itiv et mp Co Ad va n

tag e (Value) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce N Using Information Resources to Alter the Value Chain The Value Chain model suggest that competition can come from two sources: Lowering the cost to perform an activity and Adding value to a product or service so buyers will be willing to pay more. Lowering costs only achieves competitive

advantage if the firm possesses information on the competitors cost structure Adding value is a strategic advantage if a firm possesses accurate information regarding its customer such as: which products are valued? Where can improvements be made? When to Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce N The Value System: Interconnecting relationships between organizations Upstream value Firm value

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Downstream value N Business Strategies and its Competitive Advantage Differentiation Cost Focus Differentiation Focus Industrial economy Competitive Mechanism Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Dr. Chen, The Trends of the Information Systems Technology Growth Particular Segment only (Narrow Target) Cost Leadership Alliance Industry wide (Broad Target)

Uniqueness Perceived by Customer Innovation Competitive Scope Lower Cost Position Knowledge-based economy N TM -43 BREAK-1 EC Application Case 5.4: How the State of

Pennsylvania Sells Surplus Equipment (p.233) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.5 One-from-Many: Buy-Side Marketplaces and E-Procurement Buy-side e-marketplace: A corporate-based acquisition site that uses reverse auctions, negotiations, group purchasing, or any other e-procurement method Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-from-Many: Buy-Side Marketplaces and E-Procurement (cont.) Inefficiencies in traditional procurement management Procurement management: The coordination of all the

activities relating to purchasing goods and services needed to accomplish the mission of an organization Maverick buying: Unplanned purchases of items needed quickly, often at non-pre-negotiated, higher prices e-procurement: The electronic acquisition of goods and services for organizations Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-from-Many: Buy-Side E-Marketplaces and E-Procurement Six Main Types of E-Procurement (see p.234) e-sourcing Identifying new suppliers for a specific category of purchasing requirements using Internet tech. e-tendering Sending requests for information and prices to suppliers and receiving the suppliers responses from Internet tech.

e-reverse auctioning e-informing Web-based ERP (electronic resource planning) e-MRO (maintenance, repair and operating) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-from-Many: Buy-Side E-Marketplaces and E-Procurement Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Exhibit 5.5 The E-Procurement Process: A Buyers View Search for Vendors and Products E-catalogs, brochures, Conventions, exhibits, Telephone calls, visits. Quality Vendors Which vendors we can do business with? Research firms, financial stability,

credit history. Select a Market Mechanism Private, public, auctions, exchange. Initiate a Purchase Order (PO) Electronic form or rigger ready order. One-from-Many: Buy-Side Marketplaces and EProcurement Arrange a pick-up or Receive shipment Check shipping document Tendering system has a special process. Compare and Negotiate Price, financing , delivery, Quality, etc. Make a Purchase (Individual or committee)

Have a contract. Arrange payment. Pre-Purchase Activities Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Make Payment Approve payment Arrange money transfer. After-Purchase Activities B2B e-Procurement Processes Seller/Supplier e-Marketplaces Supplier Trading Platform

Supplier Buyer/Wholesale Buye/r Wholesale Buyer/Wholesale Trading Platform B2B e-Procurement Process System Order mgt. Finance mgt. Shipping mgt. Customer mgt. Supply Chain e-catalogue

inquiry/ negotiation quick ordering account mgt. e-procurement process system Material Flow Information Flow Money Flow Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Demand Chain Benefits of E-Procurement The Goals and Benefits of E-Procurement

Increasing the productivity of purchasing agents Lowering purchase prices Improving information flow and management Minimizing the purchases made from non-contract vendors Improving the payment process and savings due to expedited payments Establishing efficient, collaborative supplier relations Ensuring delivery on time, every time Slashing order-fulfillment and processing times by leveraging automation Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Implementing E-Procurement Implementing e-procurementmajor e-procurement

implementation issues Fitting e-procurement into the company EC strategy Reviewing and changing the procurement process itself Providing interfaces between e-procurement with integrated enterprisewide information systems such as ERP or supply chain management (SCM) Coordinating the buyers information system with that of the sellers; sellers have many potential buyers Consolidating the number of regular suppliers to a minimum and assuring integration with their information systems, and if possible with their business processes Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce One-from-Many: Buy-Side E-Marketplaces and E-Procurement e-sourcing The process and tools that electronically enable any activity in the sourcing process,

such as quotation/tender submission and response, e-auctions, online negotiations, and spending analyses Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.6 Buy-Side E-Marketplaces: Reverse Auctions One of the major methods of e-procurement is through reverse auctions (tendering or bidding model) request for quote (RFQ): The invitation to participate in a tendering (bidding) system The reverse auction method is the most common model for large MRO purchases as it provides considerable savings Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

Exhibit 5.6 The Reverse Auction Process (Sellers Bid) Posting Bids Invitation (Buyers) (Buyers) Contract & Purchasing Department Requirement (Bidders/ Sellers) (Bidders/ Sellers)

Bid Invitation Enterprise Web Restricted Evaluation of Bids E-mail Bid E-mail Bid E-mail

Bid (Evaluators) (Sellers) Bid Contract & Purchasing Department Rejection Supplier 1 Bid Evaluation

Rejection Supplier 2 Acceptance Supplier 3 Bid Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Reverse Auctions A Pioneer: General Electrics TPN Procurement revolution at GETrading Process Network (TPN) Post With this online system, the sourcing department received the requisitions electronically from its

internal customers (i.e., in the different departments) and sent off a bid package to suppliers around the world via the Internet The system automatically pulled the correct drawings and attached them to the electronic requisition forms Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Reverse Auctions A Pioneer: General Electrics TPN (cont.) Benefits of TPN labor involved in the procurement process declined by 30% cut by 50% staff involved in the procurement process and redeployed those workers into other jobs reduced the number of days to complete a contract by half invoices were automatically reconciled with purchase orders

procurement departments around the world were able to share information about their best suppliers Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Reverse Auctions A Pioneer: General Electrics TPN (cont.) GXS Express Marketplaces is an expanded system that makes it a public posting place for other buyers Suppliers gain instant access to global buyers Dramatically improve the productivity of their bidding and sales activities Increased sales volume Expanded market reach and ability to find new buyers Lower administration costs Shorter requisition cycle time Improved sales staff productivity Streamlined bidding process Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

5.7 Other E-Procurement Methods Internal procurement marketplace - The aggregated catalogs of all approved suppliers combined into a single internal electronic catalog - Benefits of internal marketplaces corporate buyers quickly find what they want, check availability and delivery times, and complete an electronic requisition form reduce number of regular suppliers easy financial controls Desktop purchasing Direct purchasing from internal marketplaces without the approval of supervisors and without the intervention of a procurement department Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Other E-Procurement Methods (cont.)

Group purchasing: The aggregation of orders from several buyers into volume purchases so that better prices can be negotiated Internal aggregationcompanywide orders are aggregated using the Web and replenished automatically This system only works for very large firms External aggregationprovide SMEs with better prices, selection, and services by aggregating demand online and then either negotiating with suppliers or conducting reverse auctions Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Group Purchasing Organization Process [Stage1-b]

G Confirm (Price OK) ... [Stage3] Returns Forecast Demand RFQ Response P Refund Process O

u [Stage2] Shipping / Receiving Orders y Shipping / Receiving Orders Invoice Payment Returns [Stage4] Refund Process VPTM : Vender Performance Tracking & Management Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

B RFQ S u p p l i e r / S e

l l e r RFQ Bid Negotiate Contract Place Orders Process Orders Shipping Orders Receiving Orders Invoicing Payment VPTM [Stage1-a] e

r Other E-procurement Methods (cont.) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Other E-Procurement Methods Buying from E-Distributors Purchasing Direct Goods Electronic Bartering bartering exchange An intermediary that links parties in a barter; a company submits its surplus to the exchange and receives points of credit, which can be used to buy the items that the company needs from other exchange participants Buying in Exchanges and Industrial Malls

Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.8 Automating B2B Tasks Contract Management Contract-management software can: Reduce contract negotiation time and efforts Facilitate inter- and intracompany contract analysis and development Provide for proactive contract compliance management Enable enterprisewide standardization of contracts Improve understanding of contract-related risks Provide a more efficient approval process Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Automating B2B Tasks Spend Management Tools and features may be found in spend-management

software include: A data warehouse repository designed to manage data from multiple data sources Data management of contracts, supplier catalogs, and product content Data management of pricing Detailed standard and ad-hoc purchasing activity analysis and report tools Updates, notifications, and alerts regarding purchasing Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Automating B2B Tasks Sourcing Management and Negotiation Tools and features may be found in sourcing management software include: Bid comparison, including exports of detailed bid data User management functions that eliminate data redundancy, simplify data management, and reduce risk to data integrity

Weighted scoring of parameters to calculate the total value offered by suppliers Total merchandise purchased cost model with bids winners selection and ranking Reverse auctions and sealed bids, with a full set of features such as proxy bids and bid-time extensions Negotiation support tools Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce 5.9 Infrastructure, Integration, and Software Agents In B2B EC Infrastructure for B2B electronic data interchange (EDI) The electronic transfer of specially formatted standard business documents, such as bills, orders, and confirmations, sent between business partners value-added networks (VANs) Private, third-party managed networks that add

communications services and security to existing common carriers; used to implement traditional EDI systems Internet-based (Web) EDI EDI that runs on the Internet and is widely accessible to most companies, including SMEs Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Infrastructure, Integration, and Software Agents In B2B EC Integration Integration with the existing internal infrastructure and applications Integration with business partners Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Infrastructure, Integration, and Software Agents In B2B EC

The Role of Standards, Especially XML, in B2B Integration XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Standard (and its variants) used to improve compatibility between the disparate systems of business partners by defining the meaning of data in business documents Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Infrastructure, Integration, and Software Agents In B2B EC XBRL A version of XML for capturing financial information throughout a businesss information processes. XBRL makes it possible to format reports that need to be distributed to shareholders, SOX regulators, banks, and other parties. The goal of XBRL is to make the analysis and exchange of corporate information more reliable

(trustworthy) and easier to facilitate Web Services An architecture enabling assembly of distributed applications from software services and tying them together Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce Managerial Issues 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Can we justify the cost of B2B?

Which vendor(s) should we select? Which B2B model(s) should we use? Should we restructure our procurement system? What are the ethical issues in B2B? Will there be massive disintermediation? How can trust and loyalty be cultivated in B2B? How is mobile B2B done? Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce BREAK-2 EC Application Case 5.6: Reverse Auctions Become a Diplomatic Tool (p.241) Pearson/Prentice Hall & Dr. Chen, Electronic Commerce

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