Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Prepared by Harpreet Malhotra Florida State College at Jacksonville 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 3.1 Introduction to Bonding (1) Bonding is the joining of two atoms in a stable arrangement. Elements will gain, lose, or share electrons to reach the electron configuration of the noble gas closest to them in the periodic table. There are two different kinds of bonding: Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons from one element to another. Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electrons between two atoms. 2

3.1 Introduction to Bonding (2) Ionic bonds form between: A metal on the left side of the periodic table. A nonmetal on the right side of the periodic table. Sodium metal, Chlorine gas: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Stephen Frisch, photographer; Sodium chloride crystals: Dane S. Johnson/Visuals Unlimited 3 3.1 Introduction to Bonding (3) Covalent bonds are formed when two nonmetals combine, or when a metalloid bonds to a nonmetal. A molecule is a compound or element containing two or more atoms joined together with covalent bonds. Covalent bonds and molecules will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. 4 3.2 Ions (1)

A. Cations and Anions Ions are charged species in which the number of protons and electrons in an atom is unequal. Ionic compounds consist of oppositely charged ions that have a strong electrostatic attraction for each other. There are two types of ionscations and anions. 5 3.2 Ions (2) A. Cations and Anions Cations are positively charged ions. A cation has fewer electrons (e) than protons. the sodium atom the sodium ion 6 3.2 Ions (3) A. Cations and Anions

By losing one, two, or three e, an atom forms a cation with a completely filled outer shell of e. the magnesium atom the magnesium ion 7 3.2 Ions (4) A. Cations and Anions Anions are negatively charged ions. An anion has more e than protons. the chlorine atom the chloride ion 8 3.2 Ions (5) A. Cations and Anions

Metals, like sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg), form cations. By losing one, two, or three electrons, an atom forms a cation with a completely filled outer shell of electrons. Nonmetals, like chlorine (Cl), form anions. By gaining one, two, or three electrons, an atom forms an anion with a completely filled outer shell of e. The octet rule: a main group element is especially stable when it possesses an octet of e in its outer shell. octet = 8 valence e 9 3.2 Ions (6) B. Relating Group Number to Ionic Charge for Main Group Elements Elements in the same group form ions of similar charge. For metals in groups 1A, 2A, and 3A, the group

number = the charge on the cation. For nonmetals in Groups 6A and 7A, the anion charge = 8 the group number. 10 3.2 Ions (7) B-1 Relating Group Number to Ionic Charge for Groups 1A3A the cation charge = the group number group 1A: group 2A: group 3A: 11 3.2 Ions (8) B-2 Relating Group Number to Ionic Charge for Groups 6A and 7A the anion charge = 8 group number group 6A:

group 7A: 12 3.2 Ions (9) 13 3.2 Ions (10) C. Metals with Variable Charge 14 3.2 Ions (11) D. Common Ions in the Human Body 15 3.3 Ionic Compounds (1) An ionic bond is formed when a metal transfers one or more electrons to a nonmetal. The sum of the charges in an ionic compound must be zero overall.

16 3.3 Ionic Compounds (2) 17 3.3 Ionic Compounds (3) HOW TO a Write a Formula an Compound Ionic HOW TO Write Formula for anfor Ionic Compound Step [1] Identify which element is the cation and which is the anion. Metals form cations and nonmetals form anions.

Use the group number of a main group element to determine the charge. K metal group 1A Cl nonmetal group 7A Ca 2 O 2 metal group 2A nonmetal group 6A 18 3.3 Ionic Compounds (4) HOW TO Write a Formula for an Ionic Compound

Step [2] Determine how many of each ion type is needed for an overall charge of zero. When the cation and anion have the same charge, only one of each is needed. K Cl KCl zero charge 2 2 Ca CaO CaO zero charge One of each ion is needed to balance charge. 19 3.3 Ionic Compounds (5)

HOW TO Write a Formula for an Ionic Compound When the cation and anion have different charges, use the ion charges to determine the number of ions of each needed. Ca 2 Cl A +2 charge means 2 Cl anions are needed. A 1 charge means 1Ca 2 cation is needed. Ca 2 Cl CaCl 2 2Cl for each Ca 2 20 3.3 Ionic Compounds (6) HOW TO Write

Formula for anfor Ionic HOW TO a Write a Formula an Compound Ionic Compound [2] To write the formula, place the cation Step [3] first and then the anion, and omit charges. Examples: KCl CaO CaCl2 Use subscripts to show the number of each ion needed to have a zero overall

charge. When no subscript is written, it is assumed to be 1. 21 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (1) A. Naming Cations Main group cations (groups 13A) are named for the element from which they are formed. Na K Ca 2 sodium potassium calcium Mg 2 magnesium

22 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (2) A. Naming Cations When a metal is able to form two different cations, two naming systems are used: Systematic name: Follow the name of the cation by a Roman numeral in parentheses to indicate its charge. Fe 2 Fe 3 iron(III) iron(II) Common name: Use suffix -ous for the cation with a smaller charge and suffix -ic for the cation with a higher charge. Fe 2 ferrous Fe 3 ferric

23 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (3) A. Naming Cations Table 3.3 Systematic and Common Names for Some Metal Ions a Element Ion Symbol Systematic Name Common Name Chromium Cr 2 Chromium(II) Chromous

Chromium Cr 3 Chromium(III) Chromic Copper Cu Copper(I) Cuprous Copper Cu 2 Copper(II)

Cupric Iron Fe 2 Iron(II) Ferrous Iron Fe3 Iron(III) Ferric Mercury Hg 22 Mercury I

Mercury Hg 2 Mercury(II) Mercuric Tin Sn 2 Tin(II) Stannous Tin Sn 4 Tin(IV)

Stannic a Mercurous Mercury I exists as Hg 22 , containing two atoms of mercury, each with a +1 charge. 24 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (4) B. Naming Anions Anions are named by replacing the ending of the element name by the suffix -ide. Table 3.4 Names of Common Anions Element Ion Symbol Name Bromine

Br Bromide Chlorine Cl Chloride Fluorine F Fluoride Iodine I Iodide Nitrogen

N 3 Nitride Oxygen O 2 Oxide Phosphorus P3 Phosphide Sulfur S2 Sulfide

25 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (5) C. Compounds of Main Group Metals Name the cation and then the anion. Do not specify the charge on the ion. Do not specify how many ions of each type are needed to balance charge. NaF sodium fluoride sodiumfluoride Na F MgCl2 magnesium chloride magnesiumchloride Mg

Cl 26 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (6) D. Compounds of Metals with a Variable Charge HOW TO Name an Ionic Compound That Contains a Metal with Variable Charge Example Give the name for CuCl2. Step [1] Determine the charge on the cation. CuCl2 2Cl anions 2total negative charge Cu cation must have a +2 charge to make the overall charge zero 27

3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (7) D. Compounds of Metals with a Variable Charge HOW TO Name an Ionic Compound That Contains a Metal with Variable Charge Step [2] [3] Name the cation and the anion. The cation is named one of two possible ways: Cu 2 Systematic Common copper(II) cupric The anion changes ending of element name to -ide Cl chloride 28

3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (8) D. Compounds of Metals with a Variable Charge HOW TO Name an Ionic Compound That Contains a Metal with Variable Charge Step [3] Write the name of the cation first, then the anion. copper(II) chloride Answer = or cupric chloride 29 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (9) E. Writing a Formula from the Name HOW TO TO Derive Derive aa Formula Formula from

from the the Name Name of of an an Ionic Ionic HOW Compound Compound Example Write the formula for tin(IV) oxide. Step [1] Identify the cation and anion and determine their charges. For metals with variable charges, the Roman numeral gives the charge on the cation. tin(IV) oxide 2 4

O Sn 30 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds (10) E. Writing a Formula from the Name HOW TO Derive a Formula from the Name of an Ionic Compound Compound Step [2] Balance charges. Sn 4 Step [3] O 2 Two 2 anions are needed for each +4 cation.

Write the formula with the cation first, and use subscripts to show how many of each ion is needed to have zero overall charge. final answer =SnO 2 31 3.5 Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are crystalline solids with very high melting and boiling points. When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they separate into cations and anions, increasing the conductivity of the solution. NaCl water solution 32 3.6 Polyatomic Ions (1) A polyatomic ion is a cation or anion that contains

more than one atom. Table 3.5 Names of Common Polyatomic Anions Nonmetal Carbon Nitrogen Formula CO 2 3 Carbonate HCO3 Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate CH 3CO 2 Acetate

CN Cyanide NO 3 Nitrate NO 2 Nitrite Oxygen OH

Phosphorus PO 4 Sulfur Name Hydroxide Phosphate HPO 24 Hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO Dihydrogen phosphate

SO 2 4 4 Sulfate HSO 4 Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate SO32 Sulfite HSO 3

Hydrogen sulfite or bisulfite 33 3.6 Polyatomic Ions (2) A. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Writing formulas for ionic compounds with polyatomic ions is the same as writing formulas for ions with single charged atoms. (Section 3.3A) When a cation and anion of equal charge combine, only one of each ion is needed. Na NO NaNO2 2 2 2 4

Ba SO zero overall charge BaSO4 zero overall charge 34 3.6 Polyatomic Ions (3) A. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions When a cation and anion of unequal charge combine, use the ionic charges to determine the relative number of each ion that is needed. 2 Mg OH Mg OH 2 +2 charge means 2 OH anions are

needed. 1 charge means 1 Mg 2 anion is needed. zero overall charge 35 3.6 Polyatomic Ions (4) B. Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions The same rules are followed for naming standard ionic compounds: Name the cation and then the anion. Do not specify the charge on the ions. Do not specify how many ions of each type are needed to balance charge. NaHCO3

sodium bicarbonate Al2(SO4)3 aluminum sulfate 36

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