Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Generating and Developing Ideas Introduction Ideas Incredibly important to business Generate new or improved products Cornerstone of innovation

The best way to have a good idea is to have lots of ideasLinus Pauling Creative Thinking Creative thinking Does not come easily to most people

Education involves convergent or deductive thinking Taught to look for the right answer No right or wrong answers, only ideas Creative Thinking (contd.) Vertical thinking

Each idea rests on another idea Logical form Also called high probability thinking Allows us to make assumptions without analysis Creative Thinking (contd.) Lateral thinking

Follows unconventional paths Also called low probability or out of the box thinking Allows new ideas Generating Design Ideas Generating alternative solutions Key design stage

Required by some clients Example: landscape architecture Lateral Thinking Lateral thinking techniques Pioneered by Edward de Bono Identify the dominant idea

Entrenched, or widely accepted idea Find different ways of looking at the problem Uncover other viewpoints Analogies Similarities between two unlike things

Example: Gutenbergs invention of the printing press Coin punch and wine press Look for similarities to other problems May present design possibilities Brainstorming

Exchange of ideas in a group Ideas used to stimulate more ideas Attempt to get away from conventional solutions Friendly environment where new ideas are welcome Limited time frame

Brainstorming (contd.) Special brainstorming techniques Mindmapping Breaking the rules The nominal group technique Brainstorming (contd.)

Steps in the nominal group technique Silent idea generation in writing Round-robin recording of ideas Serial discussion for clarification Serial discussion for evaluation Vote on idea importance Synectics

Technique used for uncovering perspectives Designer role-plays the product or device Asks who affects me and whom do I affect? Continue by role playing each affected person or object Strategy works best with a team

Example: basketball shoe Sketching and Doodling Drawing is the language of all designers Sketching Quick, freehand drawing Fast, efficient way to get ideas out of your head

Forces you to develop idea in terms of relationships between components Incubation Period The human mind is always working Even when not consciously thinking about a problem

Provide time for ideas to incubate During sleep The mind sifts through information and categorizes it Record ideas when they come to you Development Work

Ideas need development When a number of ideas with good potential have been generated When final solution path has been selected Goal of early development Determine if the idea is a workable solution to the design problem

Construction Kits Useful strategy Use construction kits to make a model of the mechanism Examples: Lego, KNEX, Meccano, etc. Allows working out details in three dimensions

Computer-Aided Design Solid modeling packages Development of virtual 3-D models Examples: Pro/ENGINEER, SolidWorks Used to communicate design ideas to management and customers

Appearance Development Aesthetics Describes something that is pleasing to us Considered in decisions about what we make or buy Plastics as molding compounds Introduced in 1927

Expanded shapes available for consumer products Visual Design Elements Design principles Line Color Form/shape

Space Texture Value Choosing the Best Solution Optimal solution Best solution that can be achieved Considers all requirements and constraints

Choosing may be difficult in a complex system Involves analytical thinking Criteria Selection Best or optimal solution Should be based on realistic, well-defined

criteria Review original specifications

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