Chapter 4:

Chapter 4: Inside the City I: Some Basic Urban Economics 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 1 Location, location, location Ch.3 was about the 1st level of location (city location & city size). Ch.4 goes inside the city: The nature of land use spatial patterns within the city: urban form (urban spatial structure). Important for:

Understanding property values in different neighborhoods What types of buildings & land uses are feasible in a given location, at a given time. Location value Land value LRMC shape LR rent trend. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 2 Chapter 4 Learning Objectives

What determines land rents in a city. Why and how a freely functioning, competitive land market will lead to land being used at its highest and best use (i.e., most productive use). What determines how big spatially or how dense a city is. What determines the relative land values at different locations within a city, and the relative growth rate of these values at different locations. Why different land uses and densities occur at different locations within a city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

3 4.1.1 Location & the Residual Nature of Land Value Value of land is based on supply (of land) and demand (for land). Land = Space & Location. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 4 Demand for land Demand for land is derived demand. Land has value only because it enables production or consumption of goods & services. Land provides space and

location for Living (residential land use) Industrial production of goods (industrial land use) Storage & distribution of goods (warehouse & retail land uses) Administration & control (office land use) Provision of services (office & retail land uses) Recreation & entertainment (retail & park land uses) Etc 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 5

Residual Theory of Land Value: Land value is the difference between the value of what is produced on the site and the cost of producing it there. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 6 Consider a clothing factory: Factory (Machines, Buildings): Physical Capital Raw

Material (cloth) Energy Finished Goods (clothing) Labor Land 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 7 Clothing Factory (contd):

Value of Finished Output: Clothing products $10,000,000 Cost of Production: Cost of Goods Sold: Raw material & Energy Labor (including mgt) $ 4,000,000

$ 5,000,000 Total COGS $ 9,000,000 Gross Margin: Cost of Capital: Machine & Building Rent Residual $ 1,000,000 $ 900,000

(available to pay land rent): $ 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 100,000 8 Clothing Factory (contd): Of the 4 factors of production (Labor, Capital, Energy/Raw Materials, & Land), Land is the least mobile, and so it gets only the residual, what is left over after the more mobile factors have been paid their market values. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 9

4.1.2 Competition, Equilibrium, and Highest & Best Use Competition in the land market Demand side of land market: Potential land users compete against each other for sites. Supply side of land market: Potential sites compete against each other for users (tenants). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 10 Competition, Equilibrium, and

Highest & Best Use (contd) With perfect competition, the equilibrium result will maximize the total value of all the land (and this will maximize the value of all production). This is called Pareto Optimality: Nobody can be made better off without making someone else more worse off. The result is each land parcel being used at its Highest & Best Use (HBU). This means each site is used in the way that is most productive for that location. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 11 Example:

Two Potential Land Uses: The previous clothing factory. A grocery store. Two Available Land Sites: Site 1 is the previously-described site for the clothing factory. Site 2 is closer to most residences, but farther from highways. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

12 Exhibit 4-1: Highest & Best Use Example Site 1 Site 2 Clothing Grocery Clothing Grocery Factory

Store Factory Store $10,000,000 $4,600,000 $10,000,000 $5,000,000 9,990,000 4,625,000

Revenues Mobile Factor Costs Residual (Land Rent) 9,900,000 4,550,000 100,000 50,000 10,000 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

375,000 13 Example (contd) Clothing Factory can bid $100,000 land rent for Site 1, only $10,000 for Site 2. Grocery Store can bid $375,000 land rent for Site 2, only $50,000 for Site 1. HBU for Site 1 is clothing factory. HBU for Site 2 is grocery store. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 14

Example (contd) In a competitive, freely-functioning land market, Site 1 will end up with the clothing factory, and Site 2 with the grocery store. This result will maximize the net aggregate value of production: ($10,000,000 + $5,000,000) - ($9,900,000 + $4,625,000) = $475,000. It will also maximize the aggregate land value (land rent): $100,000 + $375,000 = $475,000. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

15 4.1.3 Role of Transport Costs: The Bid-Rent Curve Rent HBU Residual Transport Costs Transport costs include: Land Cost to move inputs. Cost to move outputs. Trans. Costs directly borne by seller on site. Trans. Costs indirectly borne by buyers on site. Value of travelers time (& inconvenience) spent

traveling to/from site. e.g., Site 1 minimized transport costs for factory, Site 2 minimized transport costs for grocery store (considering customers travel costs). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 16 Equilibrium in a wellfunctioning land market Minimization of aggregate transport costs Maximization of aggregate land value. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 17

The Bid-Rent Curve (or Bid-Rent Function) Bid-Rent = Maximum land rent a potential user would be willing to pay for a given site (location). (Equals residual value.) Bid-Rent Curve shows how a potential users bid-rent changes as a function of distance from some central point. The central point is the point at which transport costs are minimized (bid-rent maximized) for the given use. Each potential use has its own bid-rent curve (and central point). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

18 e.g., clothing factory example: Central point = highway entrance. Site 1 is located at 1 mile distance from highway entrance. Site 2 is located at 4 miles distance from highway entrance. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 19 Clothing factory bid-rent function:

$100,000 $10,000 1 Mi. 4 Mi. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 20 Exhibit 4-2: Bid-Rent Functions of Three Land Uses With Differing Productivity & Sensitivity to Transport Cost (and same central point). Land Rent A

B C Center Zone of Use B Distance from Center Use A: Most productive use, Most sensitive to transport costs. Use C: Least productive use, Least sensitive to transport costs. Each use prevails where its bid-rent curve is highest. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 21

4.2 Classic Monocentric City Model Combines previous principles of land use and value to represent determinants of urban form (city size & shape). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 22 A very simple city: One central point (everyone must commute to it) One land use (housing) Featureless Plain (same in all directions)

2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 23 Result: City is a perfect circle: Circlopolis Simplicity in the model enables it to reveal key insights about the determination of urban form, the physical spatial characteristics of cities 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 24 Circlopolis All

households must commute to the central point (CBD) every day to earn the income they need to pay for housing, transportation, and all other consumption goods that make them healthy and happy citizens of Circlopolis. Transportation costs are proportional to the distance the good citizens must travel. Circlopolis has constant density at any given time within the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 25 Circlopolis has: Population = 1,000,000. Density = 2 persons/acre = 1280 hab/Mi2

What is the physical size (area in Mi2) of Circlopolis? Area = 1,000,000 / 1280 = 781 Mi2 What is the physical extent (radius in Mi) of Circlopolis? Radius = SQRT(A/pi) = SQRT(781/3.14) = 16 Mi. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 26 What is the annual property rent at the edge of the city (16 mi from the CBD)? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 27

Circlopolis Property rent at edge of city (16 mi from CBD) Suppose youre a housing developer building houses for rent at the edge of Circlopolis. What rent will you charge? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 28 Circlopolis First: You have to rent the land from the

farmers who own it. In effect, to convert land from farming to urban (residential) use, you first have to pay the farmers the amount of net profit (residual) the land could otherwise earn for the farmer in agricultural use each year. This is the agricultural (or non-urban use) opportunity value of the land. For Circlopolis this is $500/Yr/Acre. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 29 Circlopolis Second: You have to finance the construction cost of building houses on the land. Suppose it costs $50,000 to build each house (including necessary profit for the developer), and you can take out a mortgage to

cover this cost. The mortgage has monthly payments of $416.67, or $5,000/Yr/House. You can build two houses per acre. So the rent required per acre to cover the housing construction (& development) cost is $10,000/Yr/Acre. This is called the construction cost rent. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 30 Circlopolis Thus, you must charge a rent of at least $5,250 per house, or a rent per acre of at least $10,500/Yr/Acre, in order to break even. So property rent at the edge of Circlopolis must be at least $10,500/Yr/Acre.

2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 31 Circlopolis Suppose you tried to charge a higher rent than that? [Hint: the $50,000 housing construction cost already includes sufficient profit for housing developers.] 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 32 Circlopolis Housing

rent at locations inside the city (closer than 16 mi to the CBD) Houses inside the city, closer to the center, will be able to command a higher rent in equilibrium than those at the edge of the city (other things being equal). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 33 Why? The closer a house is to the city center, the less the residents will have to spend on transportation costs, and therefore the more money they will have left over to pay for

housing and other consumption. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 34 Suppose they used some of this transport cost savings to buy other consumption goods besides housing. Then the people living closer to the center would be better off than the people living farther from the center (because they would have the same housing, plus more other things). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

35 This would cause demand for more centrallylocated houses to be greater than the demand for more peripheral houses. The price of centrallylocated houses would get bid up, and the price of peripheral houses would fall. This would happen until all people living in any location (central or peripheral) are equally satisfied, in other words, until everybody has the same amount of housing and the same amount of other consumption goods. This will occur only when housing rent increases at exactly the rate that transportation costs fall, as you move closer to the center of the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

36 Basic Equilibrium Land Rent Condition: The sum of annual housing rent + annual commuting cost must be the same for all residents, no matter where they live in Circlopolis. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 37 Therefore: The

slope of the bid-rent curve for housing in Circlopolis equals the transportation cost per mile per acre. This slope is called the rent gradient. It tells you how much land rents decline per mile of additional distance from the city center, in equilibrium. The land rent gradient equals the transportation cost per mile per person times the number of people per acre. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 38 In Circlopolis: Transport costs = $250/Yr/person (roundtrip commuting costs). One person lives in each house (a city of

loners!). Density is 2 houses (2 inhabitants) per acre (1280/Mi2). 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 39 What is Circlopolis land rent gradient (in $/acre)? Land Rent Gradient = (2 hab/acre)*($250/Mi) = $500/acre/Mi. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 40 What will be the annual rent

for a house located 1 Mi. in from the urban boundary? House Rent @ 15 Mi = Rent at edge (16 mi) + $250 = $5,500/Yr. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 41 What will be the property rent ($/acre) 1 mi in from the edge? Property Rent @ 15 Mi = $10,500 + Gradient*(Dist from edge) = $10,500 + $500*1 mi = $11,000/Yr/Acre. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

42 What will be the property rent in the center of the city? Property Rent @ Ctr = $10,500 + ($500/Mi)(16 Mi) = $18,500/Yr/Acre. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 43 The concept of Location Rent The property rent in the center of Circlopolis is $18,500/Yr/Acre. This consists of three components: Non-urban use opportunity cost rent:

$ 500/Yr/Acre Construction cost rent: $10,000/Yr/Acre Location Rent: $ 8,000/Yr/Acre Total

Property Rent Center: $18,500/Yr/Acre Non-urban opportunity cost & construction cost rent is the same everywhere in the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 44 Location rent is a function of where the land is located: Location Rent = (Rent Gradient)(Dist from Edge) Everyone in Circlopolis pays $9,250/Yr for the sum of housing cost plus commuting cost. (Otherwise, what?) (The citys land rents are not in long-run

equilibrium.) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 45 Land Rents in Circlopolis Slope of rent gradient: Exhibit 4-3: A Cross-Section of Land Rents in Circlopolis and Agricolia . . . Rent/person/yr must rise as approach center at same rate as transp cost/person/yr declines. L

C Rent gradient = Ann Rent Incr/Mile closer to Ctr =TransCost/person/mi * Density L C A A B

CBD B A = Agricultural Rent = $500/ac C = Construction Rent = $10000/ac L = Location Rent = from $0 to $8000/ac CBD = Circlopolis Central Business District B = Circlopolis Urban Boundary (16 mi radius) Example: 2 persons/ac X $250/yr/mi commute $500/mi Rent Gradient (land value) if 16 mi radius then Land Rent @ Ctr = $8000 more than at edge. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 46

What is the property rent (per acre) four miles from the urban boundary, 12 miles from the CBD? $500 + $10000 + (4 mi)*($500/mi) = $12500 ( or $12500 / 2 = $6250 / person ) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 47 What are the transportation commuting costs for residents at this distance from the center? $250/mi/person * 12 mi = $3000 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

48 What is the sum of these two costs, per person? $6250 hsg + $3000 trans = $9250 total 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 49 What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density of French vs. American cities?]

2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 50 What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density of French vs. American cities?] Suppose 3 inhab/acre $4000/mo houses (smaller) U.S. Periph Ctr

France 16mi, $10500 $500/mi, $18500 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 51 What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density of French vs. American cities?] Suppose 3 inhab/acre $4000/mo houses (smaller) U.S.

Periph Ctr 16mi, $10500 France 12.9mi, $500/mi, $18500 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 52 What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density

of French vs. American cities?] Suppose 3 inhab/acre $4000/mo houses (smaller) U.S. Periph Ctr 16mi, $10500 France 12.9mi, $12500 $500/mi, $18500 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 53

What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density of French vs. American cities?] Suppose 3 inhab/acre $4000/mo houses (smaller) U.S. Periph Ctr France 16mi, $10500 12.9mi, $12500

$500/mi, $18500 $750/mi, 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 54 What if the people had a French culture (Circleville): They dont want to spend that much on housing and commuting? [Hint: What do you know about the density of French vs. American cities?] Suppose 3 inhab/acre $4000/mo houses (smaller)

U.S. Periph Ctr France 16mi, $10500 12.9mi, $12500 $500/mi, $18500 $750/mi, $22175 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 55

L L C C A A CBD 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 56

4.2.2 Using the simple monocentric city model The monocentric city model greatly simplifies the complexities of real world cities. This simplification enables the model to reveal some basic insights about urban form. E.g., relationships between: 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 57 Variables relevant to real estate opportunities: City size

Pattern of location value within the city Trend in real rents over time for a given location And economic causal forces: Population change Income change Transport cost change (infra-structure, technology) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 58 1.

The pure effect of Population Growth with Constant Density (holding all else constant, including per capita income, & transport costs per mile.) Exhibit 4-4: Effect of Population Growth with Density and Transport Cost Constant . . . L L C C A

B A CBD 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. B 59 The pure effect of Population Growth with Constant Density Rent at periphery ($10,500/Yr/Acre) must be same as before (for same reasons) Gradient ($500/Acre/Mi) must be same as before

(for same reasons). Hence Principle 1: Other things equal, larger cities will have higher average rents. e.g., housing costs in NYC, LA, Chi, SF, Note: We have assumed constant income per capita. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 60 Is difference in per capita income the only (or the necessary) reason for housing prices to be higher in NYC, LA, Chi, SF than in Cincinnati?

2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 61 1999 prices for a typical (same) house: 2200 SF, 4BR/2B, 2-car Garage City Price Index Houston, TX $115,000 50 Pittsburgh, PA

$163,000 70 Dallas, TX $180,000 78 Atlanta, GA $200,000 87 Cleveland, OH

$201,000 87 Cincinnati $231,000 100 Chicago, IL (Schaumburg) $300,000 130 New York, NY (Westchester)

$353,000 153 Chicago, IL (Lincoln Pk) $409,000 177 Boston, MA $421,000 182 Los Angeles, CA (Hollywd)

$530,000 229 San Francisco, CA (city) $720,000 311 $1,144,000 495 New York, NY (Manhattan) Source: Caldwell-Banker

New York is 10-times Houston Boston is almost 3-times Pittsburgh: Location, location, location 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 62 1999 prices for a typical (same) house: New York is 10-times Houston Boston is almost 3-times Pittsburgh: Location, location, location 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 63

So, what is the direct or fundamental cause of the higher land rents (& higher housing costs) due to population increase in Circlopolis? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 64 Is it an increase in per capita income? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

65 Is it the increase in population per se? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 66 The direct or fundamental cause of the higher land rents Its actually the increase in the radius. (The rent at the edge is fixed by the agricultural opportunity cost of the land and the construction cost of the houses. The gradient is fixed by the density and the

per capita transport costs per mile. The location rent equals the gradient times the distance from the edge of the city.) Holding population & density constant, the radius is inversely related to the fraction of the 360O arc the city can use for residential development.) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 67 What causes cities to not be able to use an entire 360O arc for growth? Coastlines, Water bodies, Mountains, Political constraints, (e.g., NYC, LA, Chi, SF, , Cinci/Nky?) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

68 An important implication of Principle 1. . . Suppose per capita incomes were the same in large & small cities. Then inhabitants of large cities would be worse off than inhabitants of small cities (same income, but less $ left over after paying housing & commuting costs). Over time (in an integrated system of cities), people would migrate from larger to smaller cities. Therefore, in long-run equilibrium across cities (i.e., in the system of cities), average per capita incomes must by higher in larger cities. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 69

Continued Inhabitants of larger cities must be more productive (on average) than those of smaller cities. (Larger cities must attract and retain the most productive people.) In fact, in the US, the largest cities do have higher per capita incomes. Thus, although higher per capita income is not the only or proximate cause of higher housing costs in larger cities, higher incomes are a long-run result of higher housing costs in larger cities. (And they may also be part of the cause.) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 70 Suppose Circlopolis population increases by 10%, holding density

constant. Then Area must increase by 10%. Thus, the radius must increase by approximately 5%: r A/ 1.10 1 1.049 1 4.9% 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 71 New urban boundary is at 16.8 Mi instead of 16 Mi. Location rent increases by $400/Yr/Acre at all points on and inside the previous 16-mile radius. ($400 = ($500/Mi)(0.8 Mi).)

This is a 3.8% increase at the old periphery: $10,900 / $10,500 - 1 = 3.8%. But only a 2.2% increase in the center of the city: $18,900 / $18,500 - 1 = 2.2%. Land rents grow faster in peripheral locations, near expanding boundary. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 72 2. The Pure Effect of Population Growth with Constant Area (holding all else constant, including per capita income, & transport costs per mile.) Exhibit 4-5: Effect of Population Growth with Area Constant . . . L

L C C A A B CBD 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. B 73

Density must increase. Transport cost per acre increases. Land Rent Gradient increases. Land rent at boundary remains the same (for same reasons). Land rent increases everywhere, but proportionately more in center. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 74 Principle 2: If a city grows by increasing area rather than density, property rent growth will be relatively greater closer to the periphery, but if a city grows by increasing density instead of area, property rent growth will be

relatively greater the closer to the center of the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 75 What would cause pop growth without commensurate area growth? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 76 3. The Pure Effect of Transport Cost Reduction

(Per person-mile, holding all else constant, including population, & income per capita.) e.g., From improvements in transport infrastructure & technology. This includes: Increased comfort while traveling (e.g., air conditioning, sound-systems) Increased productivity while traveling (e.g., cellphones, computers in cars) Increased ability to transmit information electronically (e.g., the internet) 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 77 Exhibit 4-6: Effect of Transport Cost Reduction Savings Applied to Greater Purchase of Land . .

L L C C A A B CBD 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

B 78 Effect of Transport Cost Reduction Savings Applied to Greater Purchase of Land Usually (at least in the U.S.), people use some of their increased consumption purchasing power (which results from transport cost reduction) to consume more urban land (reduce density). This results in an increase in land rents near the periphery, and a decrease in land rents near the center of the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 79

Relation of Central Land Rent to Density & Transport Cost Location Rent @ Center = (Rent Gradient)(Radius) Rent Gradient = (Transport Cost Per Capita) (Density) Radius = Area / Population /( Density ) Therefore: Location Rent @ Center = TD P /( D )= P / T D Where: T = Transport Cost Per Capita Per Year D = Density (Pop/Mi2) P = Population of the city 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 80 Relation of Central Land Rent to Density & Transport Cost

Thus, in the absence of a population increase, a reduction in density leads to a reduction in the central location rent, as does a reduction in transport costs. Both of these two effects together magnify the reduction in central location rent. In general, transport cost reductions reduce the value of centrality of location within the city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 81 Principle 3: Declining transport costs (per person, per mile or per year) holding population & income constant, will always reduce the value of land rent in the center of the city; the effect on the land rent near the periphery

is generally ambiguous, depending on changes in density. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 82 4. The Effect of Growth in Per Capita Income (Holding population constant.) Income growth typically has two effects on urban form: People choose to spend some of their extra income consuming more urban land (larger houses, larger yards, more houses per capita, more parks & golf courses), thereby decreasing density: Reduction in rent gradient. People have higher value of time, thereby

increasing transport cost: Increase in rent gradient. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 83 Effect on land rent in the city is ambiguous, but in most U.S. cities tends to be like the effect of transport cost reduction: L L C C

A A B CBD 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. B 84 Principle 4: Increasing real income per capita (holding population constant), will tend to decrease rent

gradients, with a possible result of absolute reductions in land rent at the center of the city, though a secondary transport cost increase effect (and/or increasing open space reservation) due to higher incomes may mitigate this result or even reverse it, especially if the spatial expansion of the city is constrained. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 85 Chapter 4 Summary: Will commercial property rents grow over time in a growing city? Will single-family home land values grow over time in a city that is not growing in population? Do you see how simplifying the world (e.g.,

through the monocentric city model) can bring practical insights? 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 86 Chapter 4 Learning Objectives What determines land rents in a city. Why and how a freely functioning, competitive land

market will lead to land being used at its highest and best use (i.e., most productive use). What determines how big spatially or how dense a city is. What determines the relative land values at different locations within a city, and the relative growth rate of these values at different locations. Why different land uses and densities occur at different locations within a city. 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved. 87

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