Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Slide 4.1 Chapter 4 Understanding research philosophies and approaches Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.2 Underlying issues of data collection and analysis The research onion

Saunders et al, (2008) Figure 4.1 The research onion Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.3 Understanding your research philosophy (1) Research philosophy is an over-arching term relating to the development of knowledge and

the nature of that knowledge Adapted from Saunders et al, (2009) Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.4 Understanding your research philosophy (2) Thinking about research philosophy Ontology Epistemology

Pragmatism Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.5 Understanding your research philosophy (3) Aspects of ontology Objectivism Subjectivism

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.6 Understanding your research philosophy (4) Aspects of philosophy Positivism - the stance of the natural scientist Realism - direct and critical realism Interpretivism researchers as social actors

Axiology studies judgements about value Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.7 Research paradigms Definition A way of examining social phenomenon from which particular understandings of these phenomena can be gained and explanations attempted

Saunders et al. (2009) Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.8 Research Approaches (1) Deduction 5 sequential stages of testing theory

Deducing a hypothesis Expressing the hypothesis operationally Testing the operational hypothesis Examining the specific outcome of the enquiry Modifying the theory (if necessary) Adapted from Robson (2002) Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.9

Research Approaches (2) Characteristics of Deduction Explaining causal relationships between variables Establishing controls for testing hypotheses Independence of the researcher Concepts operationalised for quantative measurement Generalisation Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.10 Research Approaches (3)

Induction Building theory by Understanding the way human build their world Permitting alternative explanations of whats going on Being concerned with the context of events Using more qualitative data Using a variety of data collection methods Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.11

Choosing your research approach The right choice of approach helps you to Make a more informed decision about the research design Think about which strategies will work for your research topic Adapt your design to cater for any constraints Adapted from Easterby-Smith et al. (2008) Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.12

Combining research approaches Things worth considering The nature of the research topic The time available The extent of risk The research audience managers and markers Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.13 Deductive and Inductive research Major differences between these approaches

Saunders et al, (2009) Table 4.2 Major differences between deductive and inductive approaches to research Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.14 Summary: Chapter 4 Research philosophy relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge

contains important assumptions about the way in which you view the world Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.15 Summary: Chapter 4 Three major ways of thinking about research philosophy Epistemology Ontology objectivism and subjectivism Axiology

Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.16 Summary: Chapter 4 Social science paradigms can generate fresh insights into real-life issues and problems Four of the paradigms are: Functionalist Radical humanist

Interpretive Radical structuralist Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009 Slide 4.17 Summary: Chapter 4 The two main research approaches are Deduction - theory and hypothesis are developed and tested Induction data are collected and a theory

developed from the data analysis Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009

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