Chapter 5

Chapter 5

PowerPoint Slides to Accompany Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Seventh Edition Paul A. Alberto Anne C. Troutman ISBN: 0-13-172203-4 Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Chapter 5 Single-Subject Designs Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Chapter Outline

Variables and Functional Relationships Basic Categories of Designs AB Design Reversal Design Changing Criterion Design Multiple Baseline Design Alternating Treatments Design Changing Conditions Design Evaluating Single-Subject Designs Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Dependent and Independent Variables

Dependent Variable: The behavior targeted for change. Independent Variable: The intervention being used to change behavior. Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. What is the Dependent and Independent Variable? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. To increase compliance in vocational settings by implementing a

token reinforcement system. Use picture prompts with students with severe disabilities to increase instruction-following skills. Students will increase their organizational skills by outlining their daily activities on a schedule checklist for six weeks. The use of graduated guidance will enable the student to eventually feed himself. Increase reading skills by two grade levels following instruction using the Im A Better Reader program in combination with time delay. Implement a response cost system for verbal outbursts. Give the puppy a treat when he follows his masters commands. Marty writes his name in the appropriate space in order to obtain teacher approval. When students correctly complete their homework assignments, they earn free time using the computer. Mrs. Hoffman uses differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors to increase in seat behaviors. Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Research Designs

AB Design Reversal Design Changing Criterion Design Multiple Baseline Design Alternating Treatments Design Changing Conditions Design Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. AB Design Baseline Intervention Sessions

Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. AB Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Simple to use Cannot be used to make a confident assumption of a functional relationship. Does not provide for replication Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Reversal Design Baseline Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e

Intervention Baseline 2 Intervention 2 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Reversal Design: Advantages and Disadvantages ABAB design is most desirable of reversal designs because it allows us to see the effects of the independent variable on the natural rate of occurrence of the target behavior Use this design: When a clear functional relationship between independent and dependent variable needs to be demonstrated When the nature of the target behavior is such that it can be reversed when the treatment is withdrawn When the nature of the treatment is such that its effects are not present on the target behavior after it is withdrawn When withdrawal of treatment does not compromise ethics Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Reversal Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Do not use this design: When the target behavior is not reversible When the treatment effects will continue after the treatment is withdrawn When it is not educationally or clinically desirable for the behavior to return to baseline levels When the target behavior is such that withdrawal of effective treatment would be unethical Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Changing Criterion Design 7 6 Behavior

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Session

Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Changing Criterion Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Helpful when working on behaviors that are being shaped Helpful when the terminal goal that is set takes a long time to reach The treatment does not have to be withdrawn to show its requisite functional relationship with the target behavior Not appropriate when behavior must occur immediately It may not be appropriate to hold back an individual and his/her behavior change Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Percent of steps correct Multiple Baseline Design Across Students 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Taw ana 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Percent of steps correct Sessions 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Richard 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Percent of steps correct Sessions 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

10 0 -10 Juan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Sessions Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Multiple Baseline: Advantages and Disadvantages Use this design: When withdrawal designs are not feasible due to ethical concerns When there is more than one target behavior, setting, or individual in need of treatment When the effects of the independent variable cannot be withdrawn or reversed Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Multiple Baseline: Advantages and Disadvantages Do not use this design: When selected target behaviors are not functionally similar nor independent of one another If there is only one individual/setting/behavior

selected for treatment When more than one intervention phase is desirable to demonstrate a functional relationship When constraints on resources make implementation impossible Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Percent correct Changing Conditions Design Baseline 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

2 1 0 1 2 3 Intervention 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 Intervention 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Sessions Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Changing Conditions Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Used to investigate the effect of two or more treatments on the behavior of a student Cannot be used to determine the effects of a functional relationship between the dependent variable and any of the tested independent variables Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Number correct

Alternating Treatments Design 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Sessions Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Alternating Treatments Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Use this design: When you want to determine the relative effectiveness of more than one treatment on a given behavior When baseline data are either unavailable or might be unstable When the treatments are sufficiently different from each other When the subjects can discriminate the treatment conditions When the effects of sequencing the interventions might obscure the results Alberto & Troutman

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Alternating Treatments Design: Advantages and Disadvantages Avoid this design: When the treatments might interact, thus obscuring the results When the subjects cannot discriminate the treatment conditions When the treatments typically produce slow behavior changes When the treatments need to be administered over a continuous period of time to be effective When it becomes difficult to counterbalance the various aspects of the study Alberto & Troutman Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 7e Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

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