Biological Explanations Heredity is one of the reasons that parents with problems often have children with problems J. Harris 98:294 Quick facts Chronic young offenders suffer twice the rate of psychiatric disorders Offenders tend to have lower levels of
glucose uptake in prefrontal cortex Offenders tend to have abnormally high levels of seretonin in brain suffer dietary imbalances Introduction Limited attention among criminologists in N.A. .. a positivistic-deterministic framework Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel
early dominance of sociology (Ch. 7) ! J.Q. Wilson and R.J. Herrnstein Crime and Human Nature .without a more interdisciplinary approach sociological explanations incomplete, and inadequate as explanatory models (p. 141) EARLY THEORIES Socrates and physiognomy Somatotyping
Jekyll and Hyde atavism Francis Gall and phrenology Charles Goring and crime = heredity X environment Body Types and Criminal Behaviour William Sheldons constitutional theory Endomorph Mesomorph
Ectomorph body types and temperament Today life course theory Chromosomes and Criminal Behaviour Biological defect either inherited or result of genetic mutation XX vs. XY normal XXY (karotype) Klinefelters
syndrome R. Speck, D. Hugan, Sean Farley Work of Sarnoff Mednick Incidence rare but Twins and Adoption Studies Why? Attempt to delineate role of biological
influence(s) vs. environment Monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins concordance rates (26-93% ! predisposition) Adoption studies Heredity link impressive but not conclusive Points to possible environmental triggers Intelligence: how a person behaves is determined by
how he thinks. Criminals think differently S. Samenow, 84. R. Herrnstein 89: The Bell Curve Gordon 87: lower verbal IQ risk delinquency Radcliffe 97: IQ and pH levels in cortex Personality: How do we acquire our personality? Lenneberg 67: possible biological
foundation Numerous studies demonstrating a personality-crime association Herrnstein may have a heritable link Alcohol and Illicit Drugs: Man twice as likely to be treated for alcohol/drug abuse crime Over half incarcerated in the 90s consumed alcohol/drugs day of offence
Caboret & Wesner 90: genetic link to alcohol abuse Ethanol key link to aggression J. Axelrod 89: cocaine fries neurotransmitter drugs/alcohol act on but ? role of environment Nutrition & Environmental Toxins: Dr. Rice 95: spend it feeding good food to young mothers-to-be Crime and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
K. Smith 97: low tryptophan diet Lo nsdale & Shamberger 80: junk food and delinquency linked Walsh 97: crime and excess zinc & copper Manganese (voodoo metal) and violence Groote Eyland
pH levels and crime Acidifying diet and crime Summary
Emerged era of social control Humanitarian and utilitarian concerns..? Positivistic Biological predisposition with environmental influences born criminal Environment and genetic > neurochemical > behaviour Another chapter done
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