Chapter 5

Chapter 5

C 5 r e t p ha Chemistry Chapter 5 Tour: Chemistry 1 2 The pH Scale Pages 118-119

Matter Pages 111-117 Describe matter, the five elements of hair and the structure and behavior of atoms and bonds Describe the pH scale and values associated with water, acids and alkalines. 3 Chemistry of Cosmetics Pages 120-138 Identify the precautions necessary for various classifications of chemicals when working with professional products and cosmetics. Chemistry

Matter Elements Chemical Bonds Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter The amount of carbon in the human body is enough to fill about 9,000 lead pencils. Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Solids

Chemistry CHEMISTRY Organic 101chemistry Liquids Elements Inorganic chemistry Gases Protons Physical change Atoms

Neutrons Chemical change Molecules Electrons Matter Anything that occupies space Exists in 3 forms 2. 1.Liquids 3. Solids Gases

Definite weight weight,but and volume indefinite volume andbut shape volume indefinite and shapeshape H2 O Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter

Matter Physical change change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance e.g. when water freezes and becomes ice it is still water, but now its a solid instead of a liquid Matter Chemical change Change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance

E.g. when hydrogen combines with oxygen to form a new substance, water Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and the physical and chemical changes of matter 1. Organic chemistry: deals with matter that is living or was alive, with carbon present 2. Inorganic chemistry: studies matter that is not alive, has never been alive and does not

contain carbon Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Beyond the Book No matter its size or thickness, a piece of paper cannot be folded in half more than seven times. http://www.hightechscience.org/funfacts.htm Elements

All matter is composed of elements There are 118 known elements Most important for a cosmetologist to know are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur Use this acronym to remember the elements found in hair: COHNS (Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur) Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Elements Atoms

Smallest complete unit of an element Composed of three main parts 1. Protons: positive electrical charge, located in the nucleus 2. Neutrons: no electrical charge, located in the nucleus 3. Electrons: negative electrical charge, located around the nucleus Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Elements Atoms

The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of electrons in the outer shell. Hydrogen Simplest atomic structure 1 proton and 1 electron Atomic number of 1 Hydrogen Atom (H) Positive proton Negative electron Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter

Elements Molecules Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond Two hydrogen atoms, each with one electron One oxygen atom and its eight electrons The result is H2O

Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Elements Molecules With an element, the atoms are the SAME With a compound, the atoms are DIFFERENT Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Elements Beyond the Book

The earththe Consider withshape its core, andmantle design and of the crust. atom. An egg, It has which center hasexamples the(nucleus), yolk, in white

some and shell. Look at all ofa the nature space Cells, which and then have annucleus, outer layer cytoplasm (the that follow that design. electrons).

and membrane. Chemical Bonds Amino Acids Compounds consisting of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen 22 common amino acids join together in chains to become proteins Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds

Amino Acids Hair Form of protein called keratin 19 amino acids found in hair must all be present or the structure wont be hair 97% keratin protein 3% trace minerals Chapter 5.1

Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Peptide Bonds (End Bonds) Polypeptide bonds (poly means many) connect thousands of amino acids together Peptide bonds (end bonds) form when the ends of amino acids join together Peptide bonds are the backbone of all protein molecules Chapter 5.1

Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Peptide Bonds (End Bonds) Hair is the linking together of protein groups Important not to disturb peptide bonds Combination of alkaline chemicals and heat could break these bonds and destroy the protein structure Chapter 5.1 Chemistry

Matter Chemical Bonds Side Bonds Keratin strands are linked with four side bonds Hydrogen bond Salt bond Disulfide bond van der Waals Forces Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Side Bonds: Hydrogen

Works on principle that unlike charges attract Hydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to an atom of another molecule with many negative electrons Hair has many hydrogen bonds, which are individually very weak and can easily be broken by heat or water 35% of hairs strength is due to millions of Chapter 5.1 hydrogen bonds in structure Chemistry Matter

Chemical Bonds Side Bonds: Salt Result of attraction of unlike charges; the negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another Account for 35% of hairs resistance to change Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Side Bonds: Hydrogen and Salt

Weakened by water, leaving the hair more pliable Wrapping the hair around a roller under tension and drying it results in a new shape New shape is only temporary because exposure to water can break the new bonds Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Side Bonds: Disulfide

Result of sulfur-type side chains joining with other sulfur-type side chains Most important bond to cosmetology Many chemical services directly affect the disulfide bond by either breaking it or reforming it, producing a chemical change with lasting results Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Side Bonds: van der Waals Forces

Based on a theory that atomic groups prefer an environment with other groups that have similar structures Not important for cosmetology services other than to know that it exists and plays a role in bonding protein chains Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds Stages of Hair Formation The protein chains bond, side-by-side, to other

The bonding of protein chains to other protein Hair The Atoms ends amino begins unite of acids with the by sharing

amino individual create acids electrons polypeptide atoms, bond to the to become protein form smallest chains throughhuman hydrogen chains

makes hairbonds, salt bonds, unit chains of matter. peptide molecules bonds of amino acids disulfide bonds, and van der Waals Forces Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemical Bonds

Beyond the Book A single strand of hair can support a load of about 100 grams without breaking. This strength comes primarily from the keratin protein. http://www.pg.com Matter Self-Check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the following questions. 1. Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or gas is termed __________. 2. All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT: a. Sulfur b. Helium

c. Carbon d. Oxygen Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Self-Check 3. T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons. 4. The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the number of __________ in the outer shell. Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Self-Check Matching

5. Peptide Bond 6. Hydrogen Bond 7. Salt Bond 8. Disulfide Bond a. Negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another b. Backbone of all protein molecules; formed when acid end of one amino acid attaches to amino end of another c. Hydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to an atom of another molecule with many negative electrons d. Most important bond to a stylists work Chapter 5.1 Chemistry

Matter Matter Self-Check As you correct your answers, evaluate your progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns. Place correct answers from the Self-Check under the I Know column. Then place incorrect answers under the I Need to Study column. CHART KNOW I Know: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

I Need to Study: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Self-Check Now check your work. 1. Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or matter gas is termed __________.

2. All of the following are elements that form the basis of hair, nails and skin EXCEPT: a. Sulfur b. Helium c. Carbon d. Oxygen Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Self-Check 3. T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly to form nucleus. Electrons move about the nucleus on orbiting paths. 4. The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the electrons in the outer shell.

number of __________ Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Matter Self-Check 5. Peptide Bond b. Backbone of all protein molecules; formed when acid end of one amino acid attaches to amino end of another 6. Hydrogen Bond c. Hydrogen atom in one molecule attracted to an atom of another molecule with many negative electrons 7. Salt Bond a. Negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the

positive charge in another 8. Disulfide Bond d. Most important bond to a stylists work Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts Matter

Matter is defined as anything that occupies space Elements The five elements found in the hair are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur Atoms are the smallest complete unit of an element and consist of protons, neutrons and electrons Chapter 5.1

Chemistry Matter Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus A molecule is two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond

Chemical Bonds Hair is a form of protein called keratin The peptide bond forms when two amino acids are positioned end to end causing the acid end of one to attach to the amino end of another Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Lessons Learned

Fa ce th Fa e cts Chemical Bonds Hair has many hydrogen bonds which gives hair about 35% of its strength Salt bonds are the result of the attraction of unlike charges and account for another 35% of hairs strength

The disulfide bond is the most important to a cosmetologists work since many chemical services break or reform this bond into a new shape Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter ITS 2 U! Draw an example of a physical change in matter; then, explain why this is a physical change. Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Answer

ITS 2 U! Cutting a piece of paper is an example of a physical change because the chemical makeup of the paper remains the same. Chapter 5.1 Chemistry Matter Chemistry The pH Scale Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale

Have you ever tested various foods to determine their pH? Whole Wheat Bread pH 5.5 5.8 Tomatoes pH 4.3 4.9 Oranges pH 3.7 4.3 Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale pH CHEMISTRY 101

pH number Acidic pH balanced Neutral Acid balanced Alkaline The pH Scale pH (potential hydrogen) is a unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic,

neutral or alkaline Measures the amount of acid or alkali in a water-based solution Only solutions containing water and/or which dissolve in water can have an acidic or alkaline nature Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Acidic Solution: More positive hydrogen ions than negative hydroxide ions Neutral Solution: Equal number of positive and negative ions Alkaline Solution: More negative

hydroxide ions than positive hydrogen ions Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Ranges from 0 to 14 with number 7 as neutral Numbers less than seven indicate acid Numbers greater than seven indicate alkaline Distilled water is neutral

Scale is logarithmic, which means each step or number increases by multiples of 10 Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale pH balanced means the pH is balanced at a certain number Acid balanced means pH is between 4.5 to 5.5 Acid balanced is term applied to most professional shampoos and conditioners Acid Balanced Chapter 5.2

Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Beyond the Book The pH of the body is greatly influenced by your emotions. Joyous, happy, love-filled emotions tend to create alkalineforming chemical reactions in the body. Conversely, emotions which are filled with anger, fear, jealousy, hate, etc. create acidic-forming chemical reactions in the body. http://www.greatestherbsonearth.com The pH Scale Self-Check

On a sheet of paper numbered 1-7, answer the following questions. True or False 1. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers less than 7 indicating alkaline. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Self-Check 2. Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________. 3. An acidic solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions. 4. An alkaline solution contains more __________ ions than __________ ions.

Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Self-Check Matching 5. Acidic solution a. pH value of approximately 7 6. Alkaline solution b. pH values less than 7 7. Neutral solution c. pH values greater than 7

Chapter 5.2 Chemistry Matter The pH Scale Self-Check As you correct your answers, evaluate your progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns. Place correct answers from the Self-Check under the I Know column. Then place incorrect answers under the I Need to Study column. CHART KNOW I Know: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. I Need to Study: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry Matter The pH Scale Self-Check Now check your work.

True or False 1. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers less than 7 indicating alkaline. False Numbers less than 7 indicate acid. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Self-Check 2. Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions neutral and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________. hydrogen ions 3. An acidic solution contains more __________

hydroxide ions. than __________ hydroxide ions 4. An alkaline solution contains more __________ than __________ hydrogen ions. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale The pH Scale Self-Check 5. Acidic solution b. pH values less than 7 6. Alkaline solution c. pH values greater than 7

7. Neutral solution a. pH value of approximately 7 Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts The pH Scale

pH (potential hydrogen) is a unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 Numbers less than 7 on the pH scale indicate acid while numbers greater than 7 indicate alkaline Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale Lessons Learned

Fa ce th Fa e cts The pH scale is logarithmic which means each step or number increases by multiples of 10 Distilled water has a pH value close to 7 Acid balanced means the pH is in the acid range of 4.5 to 5.5

Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale ITS 2 U! Draw an example of a chemical change in matter; then, explain why this is a chemical change. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale Answer ITS 2 U! Burning wood is an example of a chemical

change because the chemical makeup of wood is altered. Chapter 5.2 Chemistry The pH Scale Chemistry Cosmetic Classification s Product Information Chemistry of Cosmetics

Shampoos Rinses and Conditioners Hair Color Curl Reformation Perms Relaxers Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics If you slowly pour a handful of salt into a totally full glass of water it will not overflow.

In fact, the water level will go down. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Solutions Curl Reformation CHEMISTRY 101 Immiscible Hydrometer Lipophilic

Miscible Emulsions Oxidants Surfactants Amines Metallic Dyes Dimethicones Hydrophilic Quats Cosmetic Classifications

Six general classifications categorize cosmetics used in the cosmetology industry 1. Solutions 2. Suspensions 3. Emulsions 4. Ointments 5. Soaps 6. Powders Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Solutions

Mixtures of two or more kinds of molecules, evenly dispersed Solute: substance that dissolves into a liquid and forms solution Solvent: substance that is able to dissolve another substance No separation when standing Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Solutions

Water is the universal solvent because it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Suspensions Mixture of two or more kinds of molecules Separate when left standing and need to be shaken before use

Vinegar and oil as a salad dressing preparation is an example Calamine lotion is an example of a product Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Emulsions Two or more non-mixable substances united by a binder or gum-like substance Examples are oil-in-water (perm solution) and water-in-oil (cold creams)

Most used in the cosmetology industry are oil-in-water Liquids not able to be mixed are IMMISCIBLE Liquids able to be mixed together without separating are MISCIBLE Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Ointments Mixtures of organic substances and a medicinal agent Water generally not present

Sticks (lipstick), pastes (some eye shadows or blush) and mucilages (thick liquids such as styling lotions) St Lo yli ti o n g n Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Soaps

Mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified Include deodorant, beauty, medicated, and antibacterial soaps Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Powders

Equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do NOT dissolve in water Sifted and mixed until free of coarse, gritty particles Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Cosmetic Classifications Beyond the Book The cochineal insect, which lives on the prickly pear cactus in the southwestern United States, is an excellent source of natural red dye. The insects are dried and ground into a powder that is cooked to release the maximum amount of color.

The powder is then used as a dye for fiber, fabric, and basketry materials. Most brands of lipstick and some kinds of fruit drinks are tinted with cochineal extract. Shampoos Clean the scalp and hair to remove all foreign matter without adversely affecting scalp or hair Should be a soothing, relaxing experience Improper or irregular cleansing allows a breeding place for disease-causing bacteria Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Shampoos How Shampoo Works Shampoo contains a surfactant, which is used to remove oil from the hair Surfactant is a two-part molecule 1. Water-loving part (hydrophilic) 2. Oil-loving part (lipophilic) Surfactant causes oil to roll up into droplets, which are lifted into water and washed away Lipophilic Oil

Hydrophilic Water Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos The Role of Water Hard water contains certain salts and metals that prevent shampoo from lathering

Soft water contains small amounts of minerals and is preferred because it lathers freely Water makes up 85% of the human body Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos The Role of Water: Water Purification Sedimentation: undesirable substances sink to

the bottom Filtration: undesirable substances pass through a porous substance Sedimentation Filtration Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos All-purpose shampoos Contain a low alkaline content and a low concentration of surface active agents Do not strip color and are very mild Acid-balanced (non-stripping) shampoos Formulated to have the same pH as the hair and

skin and can be used on all types of hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos Plain shampoos Usually strong and contain a high alkaline soap base and are not recommended for chemically treated or damaged hair Soapless shampoos Lather without harsh alkaline ingredients Effective in both soft and hard water Rinse out easily Chapter 5.3 Chemistry

Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos Medicated shampoos Designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders Clarifying shampoos Use a higher alkalinity in order to remove residue such as product build-up, dirt, etc Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos Anti-dandruff shampoos

Contain an anti-fungus or germicide to control dandruff or other conditions that could breed infections Liquid dry shampoos Cleanse the scalp and hair when the client is unable to receive normal shampoo Effective in cleaning wigs and hairpieces Highly flammable and should be used with caution Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos Powder dry shampoos Formulated for clients who are bedridden Contain orris root powder that absorbs soil and oil as the product is brushed through the scalp and hair Conditioning shampoos

Contain additives that can improve the tensile strength and porosity of hair and will be removed with next shampoo Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Types of Shampoos Color shampoos Contain temporary color molecules that adhere to the outer cuticle of the hair and deposit color Shampoos for thinning hair Formulated as gentle shampoos, with a lighter molecular weight that does not cause damage or weigh hair down

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Shampoos Beyond the Book Using borax or egg yolks for shampoo, most women washed their hair once a month in 1902. Rinses and Conditioners COSMETIC APPEARANCE is the luster or shine of the hair POROSITY is the amount of moisture the hair can absorb MANAGEABILITY is how easily a comb can pass through the hair

ELASTICITY is the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its natural shape without breaking Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Rinses and Conditioners Rinses Affect mostly the surface of the hair Applied to help close the cuticle and make hair feel soft and manageable

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Rinses and Conditioners Rinses Vinegar and lemon (acid) rinses Keep the cuticle compact Dissolve soap scum and curds, untangle and separate the hair and add sheen Creme rinses Soften and add luster Slightly acidic Medicated rinses Control minor dandruff and scalp conditions Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Rinses and Conditioners Conditioners Penetrate deep into the hair to fortify damaged areas and protect from further damage from chemical services or heat Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Rinses and Conditioners Conditioners Instant conditioners Coat hair shaft and restore moisture and oils Do not penetrate cortex or replace keratin in shaft Normalizing conditioners

Contain a vegetable protein and have an acidic pH causing the cuticle to close after alkaline chemical service Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Rinses and Conditioners Conditioners Body-building conditioners Penetrate damaged hair shaft and deposit proteins into cortex Moisturizing conditioners Recommended for dry, brittle hair that has been mechanically or chemically damaged Humectants will penetrate into each hair shaft to bind and hold moisture Customized conditioners

Formulated to meet special needs of a certain client Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Rinses and Conditioners Ingredients for Conditioners Most derived from animal or vegetable materials, and a few come from minerals Amines/Quats make hair easier to comb and control static Dimethicones give hair softness without weighing

it down Fatty alcohols and acids give hair a smooth feel when dry and make easier to comb; help retain moisture Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Beyond the Book Rinses and Conditioners Existing in ancient times, conditioner did not become popular until the 1950s. The ancient Egyptians created conditioners out of fats and oils.

http://www.hot-hairstyles.com Perms Allow stylists to chemically reform hair into a wavy or curly formation Processing lotion is applied to break Rinsing removes the processing lotion. Hair disulfide is wrapped bonds.around This softens perm tools the protein chosen

Neutralizer reforms disulfide structure to reflect and theallows desired protein curl pattern. chains to bonds into new configuration. assume shape of perm tool. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Perms Fall into two primary categories:

1. 2. Alkaline waves (cold waves); processed without heat; pH of 8.0 - 9.5 Acid waves (heat waves); processed with heat; wrapped with tension; pH of 6.9 - 7.2 Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Perms Alkaline waves Main ingredients are thioglycolic acid and ammonium hydroxide which shortens the

processing time Acid waves Main ingredient is glyceryl monothioglycolate Neutralizers Main ingredient is either hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate or sodium bromate Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Beyond the Book In 1905, the first heat permanent waving machine was invented by Charles Nessler. Perms

Relaxers Reduce curl in excessively curly or wavy hair by changing molecular structure Relaxing product is applied to hair and holds it in a straight position; smoothing action is applied to softened hair causing protein structure to relax to straighter position Neutralizing step reduces swelling caused by alkaline formulas; causes hair to be held in new straight configuration Before After

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Relaxers Two popular types of products to relax the hair 1. Sodium hydroxide 2. Ammonium thioglycolate ALERT! Sodium hydroxide and thioglycolate are not compatible. Do not use one on top of the other. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry

Chemistry of Cosmetics Relaxers Beyond the Book Sodium hydroxide is also used in producing rayon and other textiles, in making paper, in etching aluminum, in making soaps and detergents, and in a wide variety of other processes. http://education.yahoo.com Curl Reformation

Service used to loosen the texture of overly curly hair; also called a soft curl perm Chemical rearranger and curl booster are thioglycolate-based Chemical rearranger is rinsed before complete relaxation of the hair takes place Processing solution (curl booster) is applied and perm rods are used to achieve the new curl formation Extending processing time can damage the hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Curl Reformation Beyond the Book Curl reformation may remove anywhere from 65 to 95 percent of the hairs curl. Hair Color General categories: Nonoxidative Color Oxidative Color Lighteners Developers Vegetable, Metallic and Compound Dyes

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Nonoxidative Colors Temporary Colors Non-reactive, direct dyes that coat surface of hair shaft Called certified colors and are accepted by the government for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics Last until they are shampooed out Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Nonoxidative Colors

Semi-permanent colors Last through several shampoos Able to penetrate the cuticle layer of the hair Molecules are smaller in size and weight than those in temporary color products Slightly alkaline Not mixed with oxidants and are used straight from the bottle Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Oxidative Colors Long lasting semi-permanent colors Use low volume peroxide to develop color molecules and aid in color depositing Ammonia: colorless gas with a strong odor,

composed of hydrogen and nitrogen Only able to add color to hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Oxidative Colors Permanent hair colors Colorless molecules combine with peroxide resulting in colored molecules Molecules enter hair with the aid of alkaline substance and oxidize in the cuticle and cortex, linking together to form a permanent colored molecule Can lighten natural color or deposit artificial color Removed only by chemical means or the hair grows out and is cut off

Primary ingredient is usually paraphenylene diamine Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Oxidative Colors ALERT! Because allergies to analine tints are unpredictable, manufacturer labels prescribe a patch test to be given 24 hours before any application. Chapter 5.3

Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Lighteners Lightening is also referred to as bleaching or decolorizing Involves oxidation of the natural melanin in the hair Made up of a combination of

ingredients including an alkaline substance such as ammonia Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Lighteners 1. On-the-scalp lighteners Applied directly on the scalp Oil lighteners use ammonia to give high lift Cream lighteners contain conditioners, and creamy consistency keeps them in place on the hair preventing running or dripping 2. Off-the-scalp lighteners Contain alkaline salts and a strong oxidizing agent that is mixed with peroxide Stronger than the oil or cream lighteners

Lighten faster Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Developers Hydrogen peroxide is most common developer Most often used strength is a 20 volume solution Hydrometer measures strength Shelf life is usually 3 years Store in a cool, dry place Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Hair Color Vegetable, Metallic and Compound Dyes Henna is an example of a vegetable dye; its repeated use coats and builds up causing hair damage Called progressive colors because the more these colors are used, the more color change takes place Pure metallic dyes are incompatible with other chemical services Chapter 5.3 Chemistry

Chemistry of Cosmetics Hair Color Beyond the Book Fascinated with hair dyes, the Romans uncovered nearly 100 different formulas used to alter hair color. Ingredients ranged from leeches and charred eggs to walnut shells. http://www.hairboutique.com Product Information

Material Safety Data Sheets from manufacturer are the best source of information about a product Additional resources are Federal Drug Administration, United States Pharmacopeia and International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary FDA U.S.P. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Product Information Cosmetic Ingredients

Ingredients listed on a product label are in order of their concentration with the largest amount listed first More than 5000 different ingredients are used by the cosmetic industry Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Product Information Cosmetic Ingredients

Moisturizers Preservatives Antimicrobials Thickeners Solvents Emulsifiers Color Haircolor pH Adjusters Chapter 5.3 Chemistry

Chemistry of Cosmetics Product Information Salon Products and their pH Ranges Three ways of testing pH in professional products: nitrazine paper, pH pencil and the pH meter pH range of 4.5 5.5 keeps hair, skin and nails closest to natural, healthy state Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Product Information Health Risks Possible health effects from chemicals you work with depend on amount, toxicity, length of exposure, mode of entrance to body and individual sensitivity Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Beyond the Book Product Information

You can develop an allergic reaction to an ingredient in a product that you have used for years. Therefore, producers are required to list ingredients in their products which are likely to cause allergic reactions. www.fda.gov Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check On a sheet of paper numbered 1-17, answer the following questions. True or False 1. Surfactants are used to remove oil from the hair. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check Matching 2. All-purpose shampoos a. Formulated for clients who are bedridden and cannot wet their hair 3. Plain shampoos b. Contain high alkaline content and are not recommended for chemically treated hair 4. Medicated shampoos c. 5. Anti-dandruff shampoos

Cleanse hair without correcting any special condition d. Formulated for either a dry or oily scalp 6. Powder dry shampoos e. Contain ingredients designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 7. Which of the following rinses leaves the hair with a soft feel by adhering to the hair shaft and is only slightly acidic? a. lemon b. creme c. vinegar

d. medicated 8. Products that fortify damaged areas of hair and protect against further damage from chemical services or heat are called __________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 9. All of the following statements regarding perms are true EXCEPT: a. Perms allow stylists to chemically reform hair b. The two primary categories of perms are alkaline waves and acid waves c. Main chemical ingredient found in alkaline waves is glyceryl monothioglycolate d. Main ingredient found in most neutralizers is either hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, or sodium bromate

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 10. Sodium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are the products called __________ that reduce curl in excessively curly hair by changing its molecular structure. 11. A soft curl perm loosens the texture of overly curly hair by: a. using a low volume peroxide b. using a thioglycolate-based product c. rinsing the sodium hydroxide relaxer with disulfide d. following a thioglycolic relaxer with a sodium hydroxide relaxer

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check Matching 12. Nonoxidative colors 13. Oxidative colors a. b. 14. Lightening c. 15. Developers 16. Vegetable, Metallic and Compound Dyes

d. e. Referred to as bleaching or decolorizing and always involves oxidation of natural melanin in the hair A less professional category of hair color in which the more of these colors are used, the more color change takes place Not mixed with oxidants and are used straight from the bottle Mixed with an oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide Most common agent is hydrogen peroxide Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 17. When you read a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of their __________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check As you correct your answers, evaluate your progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns. Place correct answers from the Self-Check under the I Know column. Then place incorrect answers under the I Need to Study column. CHART KNOW 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. I Know:

I Need to Study: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check Now check your work. True or False 1. Surfactants are used to remove oil from the hair. True Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 2. All-purpose shampoos

c. Cleanse hair without correcting any special condition 3. Plain shampoos b. Contain high alkaline content and are not recommended for chemically treated hair 4. Medicated shampoos e. Contain ingredients designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders 5. Anti-dandruff shampoos d.

Formulated for either a dry or oily scalp 6. Powder dry shampoos a. Formulated for clients who are bedridden and cannot wet their hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 7. Which of the following rinses leaves the hair with a soft feel by adhering to the hair shaft and is only slightly acidic? a. lemon b. creme c. vinegar d. medicated 8. Products that fortify damaged areas of hair and protect against further damage from chemical services or heat are

conditioners called ______________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 9. All of the following statements regarding perms are true EXCEPT: a. Perms allow stylists to chemically reform hair b. The two primary categories of perms are alkaline waves and acid waves c. Main chemical ingredient found in alkaline waves is glyceryl monothioglycolate d. Main ingredient found in most neutralizers is either hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, or sodium bromate Chapter 5.3 Chemistry

Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 10. Sodium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are the products relaxers that reduce curl in excessively curly hair by called __________ changing its molecular structure. 11. A soft curl perm loosens the texture of overly curly hair by: a. using a low volume peroxide b. using a thioglycolate-based product c. rinsing the sodium hydroxide relaxer with disulfide d. following a thioglycolic relaxer with a sodium hydroxide relaxer Chapter 5.3

Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 12.Nonoxidative colors c. Not mixed with oxidants and are used straight from the bottle 13.Oxidative colors d. Mixed with an oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide 14.Lightening a. Referred to as bleaching or decolorizing and always involves oxidation of natural melanin in the hair 15.Developers e. Most common agent is hydrogen peroxide 16.Vegetable, Metallic and Compound Dyes

b. A less professional category of hair color in which the more of these colors are used, the more color change takes place Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry of Cosmetics Self-Check 17. When you read a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of their concentration _____________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics

Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts Shampoos Shampoos contain surfactants that have a water-loving part (hydrophilic) and an oil-loving part (lipophilic) and

are used to remove oil from the hair All-purpose shampoos contain a low alkaline content and a low concentration of surface active agents Plain shampoos can be used successfully on virgin hair in good condition, but are not recommended for chemically treated hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Lessons Learned

Fa ce th Fa e cts Medicated shampoos contain ingredients designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders Anti-dandruff shampoos are formulated for either a dry or oily scalp and contain an anti-fungus or germicide ingredient and conditioners Powder dry shampoos are formulated for clients who are bedridden and cannot wet their hair Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of

Cosmetics Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts Rinses and Conditioners Creme rinses are creamy in appearance and adhere to the hair shaft leaving the hair with a soft feel

Conditioners fortify damaged areas of the hair and protect it against further damage from chemical services or heat Perms Perms fall into two categories, alkaline waves and acid waves, and allow stylists to chemically reform hair into a wavy or curly formation Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Lessons Learned

Fa ce th Fa e cts Relaxers A chemical relaxer reduces curl in excessively curly or wavy hair by changing its molecular structure Curl Reformation

A soft curl perm is a service that uses thioglycolate-based products to relax overly curly hair and then perm the hair to achieve a new curl formation Hair Color Nonoxidative colors are not mixed with oxidants and are used straight from the bottle Oxidative colors are mixed with an oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of

Cosmetics Lessons Learned Fa ce th Fa e cts Lightening the hair is also referred to as bleaching or decolorizing and always involves oxidation of the natural melanin in the hair Hydrogen peroxide is the most common developer used

in hair coloring and in hair lightening Product Information When you read a product label, the ingredients are listed in the order of their concentration Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics ITS 2 U! On a sheet of paper complete the following statements. My atomic number is one and my symbol is H; I

am classified as a gas. My name is _________. My atomic number is six and my symbol is C; I am classified as a solid. My name is ________. My atomic number is eight and my symbol is O; I am classified as a gas. My name is ________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics ITS 2 U! Now check your work. My atomic number is one and my symbol is H; I Hydrogen am classified as a gas. My name is _________. My atomic number is six and my symbol is C; I Carbon am classified as a solid. My name is ________. My atomic number is eight and my symbol is O; Oxygen

I am classified as a gas. My name is ________. Chapter 5.3 Chemistry Chemistry of Cosmetics Chemistry Self-Test On a sheet of paper numbered 1-10, answer the following questions. 1. Which of the following conditions indicates a chemical change? a. water to ice b. water to steam c. oxygen and hydrogen combining to form water d. raindrops turning to snow Chapter 5 Chemistry

Chemistry Self-Test 2. The three main parts of an atom are: a. protons, neutrons and electrons b. protons, elements and compounds c. neutrons, shells and electrons d. electrons, atoms and elements Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 3. Amino acids that create proteins are linked together end to end by: a. alkaline bonds b. peptide bonds c. side bonds d. salt bonds

Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 4. The pH scale measurement indicates whether a substance is: a. a liquid, solid or gas b. organic or inorganic c. young or old d. acidic, neutral or alkaline Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 5. All of the following statements regarding pH are true

EXCEPT: a. pH measurement scale ranges from 0 to 14 b. a solution is acidic if it has more negative hydroxide ions c. solutions with equal hydrogen and hydroxide ions are neutral d. pH is a unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 6. When a solute is dissolved in a solvent it is a(n): a. suspension b. emulsion c. solution d. ointment

Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 7. A solute mixed in a solvent that tends to separate if left standing is a(n): a. suspension b. emulsion c. solution d. ointment Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 8. Which item is formed when two or more non-mixable

substances are united with the help of a binder? a. solution b. powder c. ointment d. emulsion Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 9. Most ingredients for conditioners are proteins derived from: a. soft water b. lemon rinses c. creme rinses d. animal or vegetable materials Chapter 5

Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 10. A product label has the ingredients listed in: a. order of their concentration b. reverse order of their concentration c. random order d. alphabetical order Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test Time to check the self-test 1. c. oxygen and hydrogen combining to form water 2. a. protons, neutrons and electrons 3. b. peptide bonds

4. d. acidic, neutral or alkaline 5. b. a solution is acidic if it has more negative hydroxide ions Chapter 5 Chemistry Chemistry Self-Test 6. c. 7. a. 8. d. 9. d. 10. a. solution suspension emulsion animal or vegetable materials

order of their concentration Chapter 5 Chemistry Chapter 5: Chemistry Chemistry of Cos Matter A thorough understanding of the principles of chemistry helps in marketing products, making sound decision about appropriate services and guarding the safety of your client. The pH Scale

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Instruction-Level Abstraction (ILA): A Uniform Specification ...

    Instruction-Level Abstraction (ILA): A Uniform Specification ...

    HW Abstraction. Software view of hardware. Compilation target. Defines semantics for . SW-HW interaction at the . lowest level. Defines semantics for verifying system integration. HW Specification. Microarchitecture/ Implementation spec. Verification target for. microarchitecture/ implementation - Enables HW upgrades. ILA:...
  • Continuing to Create Shareholder Value

    Continuing to Create Shareholder Value

    Leverage world-leading expertise to ensure quality and grow the industry the $15b language services industry's capability to provide language services Enable rapid development of foreign language services and products to meet market requirements Improve quality assurance through the availability of...
  • 2005-06 Student Tuition & Fees The University of

    2005-06 Student Tuition & Fees The University of

    2005-06 Student Tuition & Fees The University of Kentucky: Is one of only seven universities in the US with schools of Agriculture, Engineering, Medicine, and Pharmacy on a single campus.
  • IQ - Partners for Housing

    IQ - Partners for Housing

    Direct Tax Committee DTLAB & DTALAB 2014 - Presentation to the SCoF 26 August 2014 Leon Coetzee Tracy Brophy Mardelle Kelbrick What is BASA? BASA is the industry representative body of Banks in South Africa The BASA Tax Committees have...
  • Catcher in the rye - Expert Garage Door Repair

    Catcher in the rye - Expert Garage Door Repair

    Catcher in the rye. ... His conversation with Carl Luce and his date with Sally Hayes are made unbearable by his rude behaviour. His calls to Jane Gallagher are aborted for a similar reason: to protect his precious and fragile...
  • CSC 458/2209  Computer Networks Handout # 8: Internet

    CSC 458/2209 Computer Networks Handout # 8: Internet

    Announcements. Don't forget the assignments. Programming Assignment 1: due Fri Oct. 11st at 5pm . Submit electronically on MarkUs. This week's tutorial
  • HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SUBSTITUTION NOW Home Secondary

    HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SUBSTITUTION NOW Home Secondary

    Installation of assistive devices Refined Bundle 2 Addition to multidisciplinary team of technician, geriatrician, chiropodist, social worker Assistive devices to match patient's needs (from list in Table 5.2b and 5.2c) COHORTS DISTRIBUTION BY AGE GROUP AND GENDER [8 missing data...
  • Snipef Training Services Ltd - Sqa

    Snipef Training Services Ltd - Sqa

    SNIPEF TRAINING SERVICES LTD SNIPEF TRAINING SERVICES LTD AWARDING BODY: Plumbing SVQ Awarded by Joint Awarding Body (SQA & SNIJIB for the Plumbing Industry) SNIJIB joint employer/employee body which sets the terms and conditions of employment in the Plumbing Industry....