Chapter 3 Molecules of Life Cengage Learning 2016 3.1 Fear of Frying Organisms consist of the same molecules Different arrangements impact function Trans and cis fats are good examples Cis fats: most naturally occurring fats Trans fats: unhealthy fats found mostly in
partially hydrogenated vegetable oils Trans fats: linked to diabetes, heart attacks, and atherosclerosis in humans Cengage Learning 2016 Trans Fats: An Unhealthy Food O O OH C oleic
acid has a cis bond: OH C H C H H C H H C H H C H
H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H H C H C H
H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H elaidic acid has a trans bond:
H C H H C H H C H H C C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H
H C H H C H H C H H Cengage Learning 2016 3.2 Organic Molecules Carbon is the backbone of life and can form: Four covalent bonds with other atoms A variety of structures, including rings and
chains Polar and nonpolar bonds Organic means that a compound consists mostly of carbon and hydrogen These and many other elements are present in nonliving things as well, just at Cengage Learning 2016 Modeling Organic Molecules The structure of an organic molecule controls its function
Chemical structure can be represented in four different ways Structural formula Simplified carbon ring structures Ball-and-stick models Space-filling models Cengage Learning 2016 Representing Structures of Organic Molecules Structural model of an organic molecule
Each line is a covalent bond Two lines are double bonds Three lines are triple bonds glucose Cengage Learning 2016 Carbon Ring Structures Are Represented as Polygons
glucose Cengage Learning 2016 glucose Ball-and-Stick Models Show positions of atoms in three dimensions Elements are coded by color Black = Red=
Gray= glucose Cengage Learning 2016 Space-Filling Models Show how atoms sharing electrons overlap glucose Cengage Learning 2016
3.3 Molecules of LifeFrom Structure to Function Functional groups are important for molecules of life Bond an atom or small molecular group to a carbon in an organic compound Impact chemical properties such as acidity or polarity Impart chemical behavior of molecules of life Cengage Learning 2016
Important Functional Groups Cengage Learning 2016 Important Functional Groups Cengage Learning 2016 Assembling Complex Molecules Monomers Small organic molecules used as subunits to build larger molecules (polymers) Simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids,
and nucleotides Polymers Larger molecules that are chains of monomers May be split and used for energy Complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Cengage Learning 2016 Cengage Learning 2016
What Cells Do to Organic Compounds Cengage Learning 2016 Condensation Cells build a large molecule from smaller ones by this reaction An enzyme removes a hydroxyl group from one molecule and a hydrogen atom from another. A covalent bond forms
between the two molecules, and water also forms. Cengage Learning 2016 Hydrolysis (Hydro-lysis) Cells split a large molecule into smaller ones by this water-requiring reaction. An enzyme attaches a hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom (both from
water) at the cleavage site. Cengage Learning 2016 3.4 Carbohydrates The most abundant biological molecules Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Used for structural materials, fuels, and for storing and transporting energy Simple carbohydrates
Monosaccharides = 1 sugar Carbon backbone with carbonyl and hydroxyl function groups Soluble in water Cengage Learning 2016 Carbohydrates in Biological Systems Short chain carbohydrates Oligosaccharides = a few monosaccharides Disaccharides like lactose and sucrose have two sugar units
Complex carbohydrates Polysaccharides = 100s or 1000s of sugars Straight or branched chains One or many types of monosaccharides Three of the most common: cellulose, Cengage Learning 2016 Oligosaccharides determine blood type Cengage Learning 2016 Cengage Learning 2016
Cellulose Cellulose is the main structural component of plants. Above, in cellulose, chains of glucose monomers stretch side by side and hydrogen-bond at many OH groups. The hydrogen bonds stabilize the chains in tight bundles that form long fibers. Few types of organisms can digest this Cengagetough, Learning 2016 insoluble material. Starch
Starch is the main energy reserve in plants, which store it in their roots, stems, leaves, seeds, and fruits. Below, in starch, a series of glucose monomers form a chain that coils up. Cengage Learning 2016 Glycogen Glycogen functions as an energy reservoir in animals, including people. It is especially
abundant in the liver and muscles. Glycogen consists of highly branched chains of glucose monomers. Cengage Learning 2016 3.5 Lipids Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compounds Vary in structure but always hydrophobic Fatty acids are present in most lipids
A long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail with a hydrophilic carboxyl head Saturated fatty acids have straight tails with single bonds (solid fats) Unsaturated fatty acids have crooked tails with double bonds (liquid fats EXCEPT trans fat) Cengage Learning 2016 Fatty Acids hydrophilic head (acidic carboxyl
group) hydrophob ic tai l Cengage Learning 2016 A stearic acid (saturated)
B linoleic acid (omega-6) C linolenic acid (omega3) Fats Lipids with one, two, or three fatty acids bound to the same glycerol head Triglycerides have three tails Most abundant and richest energy sources in vertebrates
Ex: Butter Veg. Oil Cengage Learning 2016 Triglycerides head tails The three fatty acid tails of a triglyceride are attached to a glycerol head. Cengage Learning 2016
Phospholipids Lipids with two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails bound to a hydrophilic phosphate-containing head Arranged into two layers to form the lipid bilayer of cell membranes Cengage Learning 2016 Lipids with Fatty Acid Tails head
tails The two fatty acid tails of this phospholipid are attached to a phosphate-containing head. Cengage Learning 2016 Cengage Learning 2016 Waxes Cengage Learning 2016
Steroids Cengage Learning 2016 Steroid Hormones OH O an estrogen testosterone O
HO femal e Cengage Learning 2016 mal e Cengage Learning 2016
3.6 Proteins (this is really important!) The most diverse biological molecules Vary in structure and function but participate in all processes that sustain life Composed of 20 kinds of amino acids Small organic molecules with a central carbon bonded with an amine group (NH3+), a carboxyl group (COO-, the acid), and one or more variable groups (R group) amine group
H O H R group Cengage Learning 2016 carboxy l group Polypeptides
Cengage Learning 2016 Where does this occur in the cell??? Cengage Learning 2016 Primary and Secondary Protein
methionine methionine serine Stepped Art Cengage Learning 2016 lysine
glycine arginine glycine 1 A proteins primary 2 Secondary structure structure consists of a linear sequence of amino acids (a
polypeptide chain). Each type of protein has a unique primary structure. arises as a polypeptide chain twists into a coil (helix) or sheet held in place by hydrogen bonds between different parts of the molecule. The same patterns of secondary structure
occur in many different proteins. 3 Tertiary structure 4 Some proteins have occurs when a chains coils and sheets fold up into a functional domain such as a barrel or pocket. In this example, the coils
of a globin chain form a pocket. quaternary structure, in which two or more polypeptide chains associate as one molecule. Hemoglobin, shown here, consists of four globin chains (green and blue). Each globin pocket now holds a heme group (red).
Many proteins aggregate by the thousands into much larger structures, such as the keratin filaments that make up hair. 5 Cengage Learning 2016 Stepped Art Protein Structure A Peptide Bond
serine methionine methionine serine 1) A condensation reaction joins the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amine group of another to form a peptide bond. In this example, a peptide bond forms between the amino acids methionine and valine. methionin
e valin e histidin e leucin e threonin e
prolin e g u ltam ca icd i 2) A proteins primary structure consists of a linear sequence of amino acids (a polypeptide chain). Each type of protein has a unique primary structure
Cengage Learning 2016 Protein Structure Primary Structure 3) Secondary structure arises as a polypeptide chain twists into a helix (coil), loop, or sheet held in place by hydrogen bonds. 4) Tertiary structure arises when loops, helices, and
sheets fold up into a domain. In this example, the helices of a globin chain form a pocket. 5) Many proteins have two or more polypeptide chains (quaternary structure). Hemoglobin, shown here, consists of four globin chains ( green and blue). Each globin pocket now holds a heme group (red ).
6) Some types of proteins aggre-gate into much larger structures. As an example, organized arrays of keratin, a fibrous protein, compose filaments that make up your hair. Cengage Learning 2016 Tertiary and Quaternary Protein Structure
Cengage Learning 2016 Cengage Learning 2016 Cengage Learning 2016 3.7 Why is Protein Structure So Important? Proteins function requires a correct 3D shape Denatured proteins no longer have correct shapes
Heat, changes in pH, salts, and detergents can disrupt the hydrogen bonds that maintain a proteins shape Once a proteins shape unravels, so does its function Cengage Learning 2016 Prions Cengage Learning 2016 Variant CreutzfeldtJakob Disease
Cengage Learning 2016 3.8 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides are small organic molecules Function as energy carriers, enzyme helpers, chemical messengers, and subunits of DNA and RNA Composed of monosaccharide ring bonded to a nitrogen-containing base and one, two, or three phosphate groups
phosphate groups Cengage Learning 2016 ribose sugar base (adenine) Nucleic Acids
Cengage Learning 2016 RNA and DNA Cengage Learning 2016 The DNA Molecule Cells use the order of nucleotide bases in DNA (the DNA sequence) to guide the production of RNA and proteins Cengage Learning 2016
Cengage Learning 2016 Directionality In DNA--Replication Cengage Learning 2016 Points to Ponder Consider trans fat foods such as red meats and dairy products. Are there dangers in limiting these foods in different age groups, such as in children? Benefits? Why do athletes eat high carbohydrate
meals before they perform? Consider the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the body. Why is a balanced diet so critically important? Cengage Learning 2016
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