# Chapter 5 Highway Safety - الصفحات الشخصية Chapter 6 Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Dr. Yahya Sarraj Faculty of Engineering The Islamic University of Gaza Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

Traffic flow theory involves mathematical relationships among the primary elements of a traffic stream: flow, density, and speed. help the traffic engineer in planning, designing, and evaluating the effectiveness such as: adequate lane lengths for storing left-turn the average delay at intersections and freeway

ramp merging areas, the level of freeway performance simulation Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

6.1 TRAFFIC FLOW ELEMENTS 6.1.1 Time-Space Diagram The time-space diagram is a graph that describes the relationship between: the location of vehicles in a traffic stream and the time

as the vehicles progress along the highway. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.1.2 Primary Elements of Traffic Flow flow, density,

speed the gap or headway between two vehicles in a traffic stream Flow Flow (q) is the equivalent hourly rate at which vehicles pass a point on a highway during a time period less than 1 hour. It can be determined by: Where n = the number of vehicles passing a point in the roadway in T sec

q = the equivalent hourly flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Density: Density (k) sometimes referred to as concentration, the number of vehicles traveling over a unit

length of highway at an instant in time. The unit length is usually 1 kilometer (km) the unit of density is vehicles per km (veh/km). Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Speed: Speed (u) is the distance traveled by a vehicle during a unit of time.

It can be expressed in miles per hour (mi/h) , kilometers per hour (km/h), or feet per second (ft/sec). Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Time mean speed : is the arithmetic mean of the speeds of vehicles passing a point on a highway during an interval

of time. The time mean speed is found by: where n = number of vehicles passing a point on the highway Ui = speed of the ith vehicle (m/sec) Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

Space mean speed : is the harmonic mean of the speeds of vehicles passing a point on a highway during an interval of time. the total distance traveled by two or more vehicles on a section of highway divided by the total time required by these vehicles to travel that distance.

This is the speed that is involved in flow-density relationships. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow The space mean speed is found by: Where: Us = space mean speed (m/sec) n = number of vehicles

ti = the time it takes the i vehicle to travel across a section of highway (sec) Ui = speed of the i th vehicle (m/sec) th L = length of section of highway (m)

The time mean speed is always higher than the space mean speed. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Time Headway Time headway (h) is the difference between the time the front of a vehicle arrives at a point on the highway and the time the front of the next

vehicle arrives at that same point. Time headway is usually expressed in seconds. For example, in the time space diagram (Figure 6.1), the time headway between vehicles 3 and 4 at d1 is h 3 4. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

Space Headways Space headway (d) is the distance between the front of a vehicle and the front of the following vehicle and is usually expressed in meter (feet). The space headway between vehicles 3 and 4 at time t 5 is d 3 4 (see Figure 6.1).

Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Example 6.1 Determining Flow, Density, Time Mean Speed, and Space Mean Speed Figure 6.3 shows vehicles traveling

at constant speeds on a two-lane highway between sections X and Y with their positions and speeds obtained at an instant of time by photography. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Example 6.1 .

An observer located at point X observes the four vehicles passing point X during a period of T sec. The velocities of the vehicles are measured as 45, 45, 40, and 30 km/h, respectively. Calculate the flow, density, time mean speed, and space mean speed.

Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Example 6.1 . Figure 6.3 Locations and Speeds of Four Vehicles on a Two-Lane Highway at an Instant of Time Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Solution: The flow is calculated by

Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.2 FLOW-DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS The general equation relating

flow, density, and space mean speed is given as: Flow = density space mean speed q = kus Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Space mean speed = (flow) (space headway)

us = qd Where: d = (1/k) = average space headway Density = (flow) (travel time for unit distance) k = qt

Where: t is the average time for unit distance. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Average space headway = (space mean speed) (average time headway) d = ush Average time headway =

(average travel time for unit distance) (average space headway) h = td Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.2.1 Fundamental Diagram of Traffic Flow

Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Figure 6.4 Fundamental Diagrams of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Figure 6.4 Fundamental Diagrams of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

6.2.2 Mathematical Relationships Greenshields Model Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.2.2 Mathematical Relationships Greenshields Model

Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.2.2 Mathematical Relationships Greenshields Model Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow

6.2.2 Mathematical Relationships Describing Traffic Flow Mathematical relationships describing traffic flow can be classified into two general categories: macroscopic and microscopic depending on the approach used in the

development of these relationships. Fundamental Principals of Traffic Flow 6.2.2 Mathematical Relationships Describing Traffic Flow The macroscopic approach considers flow density relationships whereas

the microscopic approach considers spacings between vehicles and speeds of individual vehicles.