Chapter 5: Kitchen Essentials 2 - Equipment and Techniques
Chapter 5: Kitchen Essentials 2 Equipment and Techniques Foundations pages 271 316 Introduction Every kitchen and foodservice operation requires equipment The equipment depends on the size of the kitchen, number of customers, the types food served, and the style of service Items are divided into categories according to their function: knives, smallwares, measuring and portioning devices, cookware, strainers and sieves, food prep, and storage containers
Receiving and Storage Equipment The receiving area is the first step in the flow of food Before accepting the product, and employee checks the quality and quantity of items being delivered against what was ordered A receiving table/area, scale, and utility cart can make receiving shipments an easy process Storing Food Without proper storage of food items an operation will waste money when it throws items away
Dry goods (flour, sugar, and grains) must be stored 6 inches off the floor on stainless steel shelving Perishable items (dairy, meat and produce) must be stored in refrigerators and/or freezers Storing Food Shelving: should be made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and very strong Refrigerators and freezers: there are 2 basic types Reach-in: large, portable fridge/freezer with 1 3 compartments Walk-in: built into the foodservice operation
Refrigerators must maintain a temperature between 32F 41F, while freezers must be kept at 10F - -10F Pre-preparation Equipment There are many types of pre-preparation equipment used in the foodservices industry Including: Knives Hand tools and small equipment Measuring utensils Pots and pans Knives
Knives are the most widely used pieces of kitchen equipment Each knife is used for a specific purpose A good knife is made of stainless steel because is it very durable and stays sharp for a long time Parts of a Knife A knife has 2 main parts; the blade and the handle The blade is the cutting surface of the knife It is made of metal and may be forged or stamped A forged blade is made from a single piece of metal and that is dropped into a mold and then struck with a
hammer and pounded into the correct shape A stamped blade is a cut-out shape of a knife from a sheet of metal Parts of a Knife Cutting edge: located along the bottom of the blade between the tip and the heel Spine: the top of the blade and is the noncutting edge Heel: widest and thickest part of the knife and used to cut
through large, tough, or hard items Types of Knives Boning: a thin, flexible, 6-inch knife to separate raw meat from the bone Chefs (French): an 8 14 inch tapered knife that is a good all-purpose knife for chopping, slicing, and mincing Clam: short, blunt-point knife to shuck, or open clams (unlike an oyster knife, it has a very sharp edge) Types of Knives
Fillet: short, thin, flexible blade for cutting fish fillets about 6 inches long Santoku: a general all-purpose knife with a 5 7 inch blade Serrated slicer: long, thin serrated blade used to cut breads and cakes Slicer: the blade may be as long as 14 inches and used for slicing cooked meats Knife Care Honing is the regular maintenance required to keep knives in their best shape Chefs keep their knives sharp by using a steel or sharpening stone
A sharpening stone is used to grind and hone the edges of steel tools Used only when a knife cannot be sharpened by a steel A steel is a long metal rod that is lightly grooved and magnetized It helps to return the blade to its convex shape Knife Care Sharpening Stone Steel
Knife Care To properly care for knives, follow these guidelines: Keep knives sharpened A sharp blade cuts more evenly and with less force than a dull blade, so it is safer Use a knife only for its intended purpose Keep the handle of the knife clean and dry Never leave knives soaking under water Never hand someone a knife Place it on a counter and let the other person pick it up
Hand Tools and Small Equipment Smallware: small hand tools and small equipment Hand tools are designed to aid in cutting, sharpening, moving, or combining foods Easy to use and are an essential part of food prepreparation Like knives, hand tools are designed for specific tasks Hand Tools and Small Equipment Bench scraper Can opener Cheesecloth: light, fine mesh gauze used for straining liquids
such as stocks, bundling herbs, or for thickening yogurt China cap: a pierced, metal, cone-shaped strainer used to remove solids from stocks and soups Hand Tools and Small Equipment Fish scaler: removes scales from a fish Food mill: a machine that comes with several detachable parts Offset spatula: turns foods on a griddle or broiler Parisienne scoop: or melon baller, cuts ball shapes out of soft fruits and vegetables
Ricer: used to create rice-like pieces of cooked food through a pierced hopper Hand Tools and Small Equipment Skimmer: a skimmer has a larger round, flat head with holes and is used to remove foam from stock or soup Sieve Spoons Tamis/drum sieve: a screen that stretches across a metal or wood base that is shaped like a drum and used to puree very soft foods and remove solids from purees Tongs Wire whip Zester
Measuring Utensils Widely used in the foodservice industry and measure ingredients and temperatures Bimetallic stemmed thermometer: used for checking large or thick food Thermocouple: measures the temperature in thick or thin foods almost instantly Measuring Utensils Pots and Pans Pots and pans are often called cookware Shape, size, and material may differ
May be made out of copper, cast iron, chrome, stainless steel, or aluminum In general, pots are larger vessels with straight sides and two loop handles Pans tend to be shallower, with one long handle and either straight or sloped sides Type of Pot Description Uses
Brazier Medium to large pot, more shallow than sauce pots, has straight sides, two looped handles, and typically made of heavyweight material and a thick bottom. Braise meat and vegetables Double Boiler A pot that has an upper and lower pot. The lower pots holds boiling or
simmering water that gently cooks the food in the upper pot. Melting chocolate or heating milk, cream or butter Sauce pot More shallow than stock pots, with straight sides and two loop handles Prepare sauces, soups, and other liquids
Stock pot Very large pot that sometimes has a spigot Prepare stocks Pans Type of Pan Description Uses
Braising pan High-sided, flat-bottomed cooking pan. Also called a brazier or a rondeau. Braise, stew, and brown meat Cast-iron Skillet A heavy, thick pan made of cast-iron that holds heat extremely well.
Pan grill, pan-fry, and braise foods like meat or vegetables Crpe pan A shallow skillet with very short, slightly slopping sides. Crpes (specialty pancake) Fish poacher
Long, narrow, metal pan with a perforated rack that cooks use to raise and lower the fish so it doesnt break. Fish Hotel pan Thin metal pan that is used to hold prepared food in a steam table, hotholding cabinet, or refrigerator. Holds eggs, occasionally baking, roasting, or
poaching meats and vegetables Pans Type of pan Description Uses Roasting pan A shallow, rectangular pan with medium-high sides, and two handles.
Roast and bake foods such as meat and poultry Saucepan Medium height, straight sides, and a single long handle. General cooking, in particular liquid or liquidbased mixtures, on ranges Saut pan
French term = Saut US = Fry pan Both have slopped sides and one long handle. Saut and to pan fry Spring form pan Two-part, spring-loaded baking pan. The bottom piece and ring secure with a spring to hold the bottom piece. Wok Desserts (cheesecake)
Metal pan with a rounded bottom and Frying and steaming in curved sides. The curved sides make it Asian cooking easy to toss and stir food. Care of Pots and Pans Always wait for pots and pans to cool before washing or rinsing to avoid warping Overall make sure to wash in hot, soapy water, and dry immediately Copper: use commercial cleaners to remove discoloration before regular washing Nonstick coating: use a plastic mesh scrubber to scrub inside of the nonstick pan to avoid scratches
Food-Preparation Equipment In addition to knives, hand tools, and pots and pans, other items are necessary to prepare food for cooking: Cutters and mixers Steamers Broilers Ranges, griddles, and fryers Ovens Cutters and Mixers Always use safety guards when using cutting machines
Offer assistance and more training It is illegal for minors to use, clean, or maintain cutters or mixers Used to cut meats and vegetables and to mix sauces and batters Cutters and Mixers Countertop blender: consists of a base that houses the motor and a removable, lidded jar with a propeller-like blade in the bottom Immersion blender: its a long, stick-like machine also called a hand blender, stick blender, or burr blender Food processor: grind, puree, blend, crush, and knead
foods Horizontal cutter mixer (HCM): cuts, mixes, and blends foods quickly with a high-speed, horizontal, rotating blade Cutters and Mixers Mandoline: manually operated slices made of stainless steel with adjustable slicing blades to slice and julienne Meat grinder: a free standing machine or a mixer attachment Meat slicer: a machine with a slanted, circular blade that passes through the machine or is pushed by an employee
Cutters and Mixers Mixer: come in 5-quart, 20-quart, 60-quart, and 80quart sizes and are used to mix and process large amounts of food with special attachments Flat beater paddle: use to mix, mash, and cream soft foods Wire whip: use to beat and add air to light foods Wing whip: a heavier version of a wire whip, use it to whip, cream, and mash heavier foods Pastry knife (paddle): use to mix shortening into dough Dough arm (hook): use to mix heavy, thick dough Cutters and Mixers
Steamers Steamers are used to cook vegetables and grains A steamer allows the food to come into direct contact with the steam, heating the food very quickly Steamers Type of Steamer Description Uses
Steamer Stacking pots with the bottom pot that holds simmering/boiling water. Each above pot has holes that allows steam to circulate and cook food. Vegetables and grains Convection steamer Steam is generated in a boiler and then piped
to the cooking chamber, where it is vented over the food. Cook large quantities of food Pressure steamer Water is heated under pressure in a sealed compartment, allowing it to reach temperatures greater than 212F. Allow steam to escape before opening.
Meats Steam-jacketed kettle The kettles bottom and sides have two layers, Soups and stews and steam circulates between them. Because the circulating steam evenly heats the sides instead of just the bottom, food cooks faster and more evenly. Steamers Broilers
Broilers use very intense direct heat the is above the food, that cooks very quickly Type of Broiler Description Uses Charbrolier Uses gas or electricity to mimic the effects of charcoal in a grill. Grilled meats and
vegetables Rotisserie Cooks place food in a stick, or spit, and roast it over or under a heat source Chicken, turkey, or other poultry items Salamander A small radiant boiler usually
Brown, finish, and melt attached to the back of a range. foods to order Broilers Ranges, Griddles, and Fryers Ranges are the most frequently used piece of equipment Range: cooking units with open heat sources Type Description Uses
Deep-fat fryer Gas and electric fryers cook foods in oil at temps. Between 300F and 400F. French fries, meats Flat-top burner Cooks food on a thick slate of cast iron or a steel plate the covers the heat source and provides even consistent heat.
Breakfast items Open burner A grate-style gas burner supplies direct heat by All cooked way of an open flame to the item being cooked. foods Wok burner A gas burner with multiple jets, designed to cradle a rounded wok pan in extremely intense heat.
Stir-fry Ranges, Griddles, and Fryers Ovens Type of Oven Description Uses Convection oven
Has a fan that circulates heated air around the food as it cooks. This shortens cooing time and reduces them temperature of convention ovens by 25 50 degrees All baked items Conventional oven The heat source is located on the floor of the oven, heat rises into the cavity of the oven which contains
racks for food to sit on as it cooks. All baked items Deck oven A type of conventional oven in which two to four shelves are stacked on top of each other. Pizza Rotary oven
Has three to five circular shelves on which food cooks as the shelves move around a central rod. Meats Ovens Safety Precautions When working with large equipment, remember: Learn to use the machine by getting proper instruction Use all safety features Turn off and unplug electrical equipment completely after each use
Clean and sanitize the equipment after each use Reassemble all pieces properly and leave machines unplugged after each use Report any problems or malfunctions promptly Holding and Serving Equipment Once food has been prepared it is now ready to present to the guest Bain-marie: any type of hot water bath used to keep foods warm Chafing dishes: used to keep foods hot on a buffet line Food warmer/steam table: designed to hold hotel pans (full size or small) with or without water
Holding and Serving Equipment 5.1 Summary Receiving equipment includes receiving tables/area, scales, and utility carts. After food is received, it is stored on shelving or in refrigerators and freezers. Pre-preparation equipment includes knives, measuring utensils, hand tools and small equipment, and pots and pans. Pots come in many shapes and sizes and are made of copper, cast iron, stainless steel, and aluminum, with or without nonstick coating. Pans also come in many shapes and sizes. Preparation equipment includes cutters and mixers, steamers, broilers, ranges, griddles, fryers, and ovens.
Holding and serving equipment can include the bain-marie, food warmer/ steam table, hot-holding cabinet, coffee maker, tea maker, ice machine, hot box, chafing dishes, and espresso machines.
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