Chapter 6

Chapter 6 The Union in Crisis (1846-1861) Write down the black! Slavery, States rights, and Western Expansion Chapter 6, Section 1

Differences between the North and South North Industrial/urban More factories More railroads More telegraphs More money in banks South Rural

Plantations/farms More slaves North/South Slavery North Small vocal group of abolitionists believed was morally wrong

Afraid it would spread into the north Hurt nations credibility internationally Had many restrictive laws/ attitudes towards freed African Americans

Many have neutral opinions Not all opposed- some made a lot of money thanks to the Southern plantations Poor workers afraid of losing jobs South Lifeline of economy

Felt the North had paid slavery Slaves = property Afraid northern politicians would outlaw slavery thus destroying economy 1804- all northern states passed

laws against slavery 1808- Congress banned all further importation of slaves to the US Did not ban internal slave trade Slave population still grew at an excelled pace. WHY??? Big question becomes:

What to do with territories? Slave or Free? Missouri Compromise 1820 answers for a little while But doesnt settle issue of is slavery legal when lands

in west were still territories

Election of 1848 Democrats (Lewis Cass) Whigs (Zachary Taylor) Mexican War hero Whigs = nationalist party that formed in 1832 in opposition of Democrats Plantation owner Avoided slavery issue Favored popular sovereignty

Angered by this some members split from each party to form Free Soil Party Drew enough votes away from Cass Zachary Taylor becomes 12th President Popular Sovereignty A policy stating that voters in a territory should decided whether or not to allow slavery there

Way of avoiding issue in Congressfor nowalso allows parties in 1848 to focus on the candidates and not issue of slavery Compromise of 1850 Proposed by Henry Clay 5 laws passed to try to

keep everyone happy Very hotly debated for months Southern states even threaten to secede! By this point Taylors deadFillmore is Pres and supports compromise California is admitted as free state

Territory of New Mexico & Utah would decide for themselves about slavery Texas is given $10 million to give up claims on New Mexico Slave trade banned in DC But not slavery itself Strict Fugitive Slave Laws Forbids US citizens to help escaped slaves and orders them returned to owners Much stricter than previous Fugitive slave laws

Effects Compromise only made problem worse North upset over Fugitive Slave act South upset over balance & political power Still not addressed other territories

Taylor dies in office in 1850 Millard Fillmore 13th President Chapter 6, Section 2 A Rising Tide of Protests & Violence

Northern outraged at Fugitive Slave Act Many free Africans sold into slavery Law favored judges ruling against them in court Underground Railroad organized to help slaves escape Harriet Tubman one of most famous conductors

Uncle Toms Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe So this is the lady who made this big war? Powerful condemnation of slavery published in 1852 Election of 1852

Democrat: Franklin Pierce Whigs: Winfield Scott Divided over issues

Pierce wins in a landslide Franklin Pierce 14th President Gadsden Purchase 1853 $10 million for South New Mexico and Arizona Established boundaries of the continental US as we know it today

Stephen Douglas Ambitious Democratic Senator from Illinois Helped push

Compromise of 1850 through Motives 1) Chicago will benefit from development of West 2) wanted to run for Pres. and needed support of South Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

Stephen Douglas creates this Does this to gain popularity in N & S to run for Pres. Popular sovereignty to decided Nebraska/Kansas territory Let the people in a territory decide whether to allow slavery there At pressure from Southern states, territory split into two He thinks it will be a peaceful voteWRONG Its assumed Nebraska will be free, Kansas slave

Nullifies Miss. Compromise Northerners outraged and see it as sell out, Southern OK with it Democrats only voted out of loyalty to party Bleeding Kansas Free-soilers from New England migrate Kansas to stop slavery (Nebraska too far north to attract slaveholders)

Proslavery settlers forming secret societies to go against the free soilers and to illegally vote 1855 two capitals Topeka (antislavery) & Lecomptom (proslavery) Violence between antislavery and proslavery settlers begins to spread in Kansas 1854-1856 Group of southerners looted homes and offices in Lawrence, Kansas

(free-soiler territory) John Brown Pottawatomie Creek Killed 5 men with swords in front of their families as retaliation

In the end After many drafts of its constitution and much debate, Kansas enters as a free state in 1861-after Civil War begins Bleeding Sumner

May 22 1856 Charles Sumner - Senator of MA, gave a powerful 2 day antislavery speech entitled The Crime Against Kansas. took cheap shots at absent

proslavery senator Andrew Butler Stephen Douglas muttered: "That damn fool will get himself killed by some other damned fool." Preston Brooks (nephew of Butler) in House of Reps Two days later Brooks beat Sumner with cane

Took Sumner 3 years to fully recover from injuriesreelected during this and his seat was held empty Brooks removed as punishment but SC reelected him and sent him back Helped to further divide between North and the South in the Senate

Chapter 6, Section 3 Political Realignment Deepens the Crisis Republican Party Ancestor to modern day party Emerges in response to Fugitive Slave laws and Kansas-Nebraska Act

Antislavery supporters Know Nothings Secret political group who began as nativists anti-immigration Later become American Party

Election of 1856 Democrats- James Buchanan Republicans- John Fremont Know-Nothings- Millard Fillmore

Democrats supported 1850 Compromise Republicans wanted Kansas to be free state James Buchanan 15th President w/support of South Promised to stop the agitation of the slavery issue Dred Scott DecisionScott v. Sandford Scott (a slave) filed suit against owner claiming that b/c him

and his wife once lived in free states the couple was in fact free Court Decision 7-2 against Scott Said that as property, he had no right to sue in court Makes Missouri Compromise unconstitutional Congress could not deprive people of their property, upholds slave owners rights to take slaves anywhere in country that they want Outrages the North- means Congress has no power to ban slavery anywhere

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Illinois Senatorial Election 1858 Seven debates that draw nationwide attention Douglas won election- for popular sovereignty But Lincoln (anti-slavery) gained national popularity

John Browns Raid Oct 16, 1859 John Brown attacked arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA 21 men wanted to arm slaves and start massive revolt against slavery Colonel Robert E. Lee sent in to stop it Half of Browns men killed Brown sentenced to be hanged Northern sympathy for him outrages the South

Chapter 6, Section 4 Lincoln, Secession, & War **Election of 1860** Democratic Party split over issue of slavery Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglass favors Popular Sovereignty

Southern Democrats favors slavery in territories nominate John Breckinridge Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell Whigs + Know Nothings banded together Promise to hold US together Republican Party nominates Abraham Lincoln End of slavery in territories but no interference where slavery is already established

Election of 1860 Lincoln won every free state except New Jersey (tie with Douglas) Breckinridge carried lower south while Bell carried Border states Lincoln 39% of popular vote, 180 electoral votes. ****NOT ONE FROM THE SOUTH Abraham Lincoln 16th President

The Lower South Secedes Outraged President elected without southern vote Secessionists argued that since states had voluntarily joined Union they could choose to leave it South Carolina Dec 20, 1860 6 states followed Confederate States of America aka Confederacy

Jefferson Davis = President War President Buchanan said he would not interfere with secession by force In your hands, my dissatisfied fellowcountrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war You have no oathto destroy the govt., while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect, and defend it.

Lincoln, Inaugural Address March 4, 1861 Fort Sumter Federal fort in Charleston, SC

Federal soldiers under Major Robert Anderson running out of supplies Tough decision If Lincoln sent troops with more supplies it might look like act of aggression If he did not he would be acknowledging Confederacy

Fort Sumter Lincoln told governor of SC he was sending food but no troops April 10 Davis orders General Beauregard to take fort even by force Apr 12, 1861 Confederates open fire on Fort Sumter 24 hours Anderson surrenders Fort Sumter

Act of Open Rebellion Lincoln calls for volunteers on April 15 th Civil War Begins Union and Confederacy 1861

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