Unit 7 Electricity The basis of electricity is the Law of Charges and the movement of electrons. Electron Theory of Charge Electric Charge can be ____________ or ______________ An electrons charge is _____________ and it is found in the electron cloud outside of the _____________ A protons charge is ___________ and it is found in the

_______________ A neutrons charge is __________ Atoms are neutral as protons and electrons are ___________ in number Static Electricity Atoms can gain or lose ________________and become charged

because the number of protons no longer equals the number of electrons The number of ______________ must remain constant Adding electrons gives rise to a ________ charge. _________________ electrons give rise to a positive charge. These processes create electrostatic charge which is often referred to as

____________ electricity. Charging an Object Objects can become charged through several processes: Friction - ___________ two surfaces against each other, ex. Fur and plastic rod Contact - transferring charge by ________ a

charged object against a neutral object. Induction - by placing a charged object next to a __________ object and allowing ____________ to flow to or from the object Charge transfer Induced charges attraction repulsion

ELECTRICAL CHARGE Unit is the ________________________ (C ) Symbol in equations => __________ q = n x e = (# electrons) x (electrons charge) e = 1.6 x 10-19 C/electron e = _________________________ charge Electrostatic Force Law of Charges - similar charges _________ and

opposite charges ___________. Coulombs Law describes it mathematically Force is __________ proportional to the ______________ of the charges Force is inversely related to the _____________________ Given by the equation: F = k q 1q 2 r2

Where k = 9.00 x 109 N*m2/C2 Known as Coulombs constant Static Discharge stored charge in a surface is transferred quickly to another charged body https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/jo hn-travoltage/latest/john-travoltage_e

n.html Electric Field The space around an object that is influenced by the presence of its charge is known as ______________________. The greater the field strength is at a point in space, the _______________ the force.

The electric field is how charges exert forces on other charges through a distance. The direction of any electric field is defined as the direction that a positive charge would feel a force at that point in space. Electric Potential Work must be done to move a charged object

into a field of like charge or remove a charged object from a field of opposite charge. Just like moving an object against gravity changes GPE, moving an object within an electrical field does the same thing. In the same way one can change or generate electrical __________________. The difference in electrical potential energy that arises is known as the _______________.

Potential Difference Potential Difference - between the charges can be visualized when you have to work to bring two like charges together. p.d. = work to create potential / charge moved Unit is a volt or a joule (J) per coulomb (C ) p.d. can be measured by the ___________to move the charge or the work that charge can do.

12 volt battery does 12J of work for each coulomb of charge transferred from its terminals and vice versa. Electrical Resistance In a conductor there are many collisions with the positive ions. When these collisions occur the electrons lose energy.

This energy gained by the positive ions is expressed by an increase in ______________. This results in a resistance to the flow of electrons. This is called electrical resistance (R ). Unit Ohm () symbol (R )) symbol (R ) Electrical Current The continuous flow of electric charge is

an electric current. Charge flows 1 direction in direct current (DC). Example: battery-operated devices Alternating current (AC) regularly The reverses SI unit of electric current is the Example: home and school _________(A), or amp, which equals 1

______________. Even though electrons flow in an electric current, scientists define current as the direction in which positive charges would flow. NATURE OF CURRENT Current in a circuit A complete path is required for charge

to flow in a flashlight. Batteries must be placed so that charge can flow from negative to positive, passing through the Flow bulb. of current Switch Negative terminals Spring

Positive terminals Ohms Law Increasing the voltage increases the current. Keeping the same voltage and increasing the resistance decreases the current. OHMS LAW

Examples Find the resistance of a portable lantern that uses a 24V power supply and draws a current of 0.80 A. A 1.5 V battery is connected to a small light bulb with a resistance of 3.5 . What is the current of the bulb?

Components of a Circuit Voltage (potential difference) This is what gets charges moving in an circuit. Voltage (V) is measured in volts (V) in the SI system. Current the rate of movement of charges

through a conductor. Current (I) is measured in amperes (A) in the SI system. Resistance Internal friction that slows the movement of charges through a conductor. Resistance (R) is measured in ohms () in the SI

system. TWO TYPES OF CIRCUITS 1. Draw a circuit with 3 bulbs in series with a two cell battery and a closed switch. 2. Draw a circuit with 3 bulbs in parallel, two motors in

series, a two cell battery and a closed switch. 3. Draw a circuit with 2 resistors, a one cell battery, and an open switch. 4. Draw a circuit with 3 bulbs in parallel, one buzzer (not in parallel), and a two cell battery.

SERIES CIRCUITS Series circuits have a single path for the current to flow. RESISTANCE IN SERIES In a series circuit the current passes through all the resistance. The current only has one

place to flow. The total resistance in the circuit is the sum of the individual resistances. R s = R1 + R 2 + R 3 + EXAMPLE

Three resistors with resistance of 12, 8, and 24 ohms are in a series circuit with a 12 V battery. (A) What is the total resistance of the resistors? (B) How much current can move through the circuit? (C) What is the current through each resistor? RESISTANCE AND VOLTAGE IN PARALLEL In a parallel circuit the

voltage across each resistance is the same, but the current through each resistance may vary. The current travels the path of

least resistance. The following equation is used to calculate the equivalent parallel resistance. 1/Rp = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + The total resistance in a parallel circuit is always less than the smallest parallel resistance.

EXAMPLE Three resistors with resistance of 12, 8, and 24 ohms are now connected in parallel with a 12 V battery. (A) What is the combined resistance? (B) What is the current in the overall circuit? (C) What is the current through each resistor?