CHAPTER 6 REVIEW Section 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Compare/contrast the Aztec and Mayan cultures, such as their political and social structures, religion an scientific achievements.
Which civilization is considered the mother culture of Mesoamerica and why? Describe how the Mayans recorded their history and what became of these artifacts. What was the Mayan Golden Age and when did it begin? Explain the methods the Maya developed in farming. Describe the two most important Aztec cities. Define: Mesoamerica, maize, stela, chinampas & tribute Question 1 A. B. C. D.
E. F. Aztecs believed in human sacrifice, the Mayans believed in offering blood. The Mayans were more scientific specifically in astromomy and mathematics. The Aztecs were warlike.* The Mayans had city states with local rule, the Aztecs were ruled by a supreme ruler. Aztecs spoke Nahuatl, while the Mayans spoke Maya. Aztecs called God Quetzalcoatl and the Mayans Kukulcan. The Mayan style of art was true to life, having representations of contemporary life in murals. The Aztecs were outstanding craftsmen and sculptors *Anthropologists used to contrast the "peaceful" Maya with the bloodthirsty Aztecs of central Mexico. Although human sacrifice was not as important to the Maya as to the Aztec, blood sacrifice played a major role in their religion. Individuals offered up their blood, but not necessarily their lives, to the gods through painful methods using sharp instruments such as sting-ray spines or performed ritualistic self mutilation.
The king's blood sacrifice was the most valuable and took place more frequently. The Maya were warlike and raided their neighbors for land, citizens, and captives. Some captives were subjected to the double sacrifice where the victims heart was torn out for the sun and head cut off to pour blood out for the earth. Question 2 Olmec civilization ended after 400 B.C.; reasons for decline unclear Most monuments were destroyed somehow They are called mother culture because they influenced other Mesoamerican
cultures later peoples use Olmec art styles & pottery, ideas about cities, ceremonial centers, ritual games also spread & the use of picture symbols may have influenced later writing systems Question 3 The Mayans were the first to keep any sort of historical record, and the beginnings of the calendar were born. The Mayans used stelae, or stone monuments, to carve their civil events, calendars and astronomy knowledge. They also inscribed their religious beliefs and mythology on pottery. They were the first Mesoamerican culture
to use paper made from bark to record events, but the Spanish destroyed most of them as they conquered the Mayans. Question 4 The period of the most artistic and cultural achievement Also called the Classic period 300 - 900 AD The Maya developed a complex,
hierarchical society divided into classes and professions. Centralized governments, headed by a king, ruled territories with clearly defined boundaries. Question 5 Maya farmers used a method called slash and burn before they began planting crops. First, the farmer cut down all the trees in the area he wanted to
plant crops in. This was the slash part Next, he burned the tree stumps, and the trees he had cut down. The ashes from the fires mixed with the soil. The ashes made the soil rich, or fertile. Then the farmers planted seeds in the soil - they grew maize (corn), squash, beans, chili peppers, and cacao (cocoa), which is used to make chocolate. Also built raised fields to prevent crops from being ruined during the floods Question 6 Teotihuacan Aztecs believed that many of their Gods originated in this city that existed before the Aztecs became
culture Tenochtitlan Aztec capitol city built in the middle of Lake Texcoco. Their legend said they would create the center of their culture where an eagle would be holding a snake in its mouth. was connected to the mainland by causeways leading north, south, and west of the city. These causeways had bridges built into them that allowed canoes and other traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away if necessary to defend the city. The city itself was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Two double aqueducts each more than 2.5 mi long provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day.
Section 2 Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name the cultures that preceded the Incas in South America and the major achievements of each. Name three ways that the Incans emperors
extended and maintained their empire? Where was the Incan capital city and how far did the empire reach? Describe two important characteristics of Incan farmers. Besides farming, what other skills did the Incas have? Explain the nature of the Incan religion. Answer 1 Chavin Culture earliest culture known for the huge complex they built at Chavin de Huantar; probably unified by religion created successful drainage systems by suing canals showed advanced understanding of sound used canals to create a roaring sound. The temple appeared to be roaring like
a jaguar, a sacred animal. demonstrated advanced skills and knowledge in metallurgy Moche Culture - good farmers, built roads & used adobe in their building Nazca etched geoglyphs in the desert, probably for spiritual meaning Cities of Huari & Tiahuanaco people who lived there became powerful traders and religious people Answer 2
By declaring themselves divine, the people remained more loyal to the emperors Made people reliant on them by banning personal property and therefore banning trade the people became dependent on their rulers to provide their basic needs for them Though the construction of an extensive road system that allowed the military to quickly move to all parts of the empire, they discouraged rebellion
Answer 3 Cuzco was situated about 11,000 feet above sea level high in the Andes Mountains. There were palaces, temples, schools, houses, and government buildings. It had gardens filled with exotic herbs, trees, and flowers. There was a huge public square for ceremonies and gatherings. The streets were paved. Water was brought in by aqueducts to supply the palaces. (The Incas took frequent
baths.) Most of the buildings were made of stone. The Incan were master builders. Their stonework is shaped so that each piece fit together perfectly, without the use of mortar. Inca stonework is still regarded as the best in the world. Building stones were quarried in the mountains. The city was always under construction. Each emperor ordered a new palace to be built for his use. They had to, actually, as the palaces of the former Incas were still in use. The Incas believed in an afterlife. The mummy of a former Inca was housed in his palace. To wait on him, his servants and family continued to live in the palace. So new Incas had to build their own palace. The empire itself stretched for 2500 miles from Ecuador to Chile Answer 4 Farmers built stepped terraces to keep their
crops from washing away. They carved steps of flat land up the side of the mountain to create flat land for farming. The terraces also helped to keep rainwater from running off. They reduced erosion. Part of the year they farmed for their local community & family. The other part was designated for the rest of the empire or wherever the emperor felt it was needed Answer 5 Metalworkers used many kinds of
metals, even alloys, for making everyday items as well as sacred religious artifacts. Weapons were also made form these metals Weaved cloth into textiles to make clothing , blankets, bags, etc. Medically they made advances in anesthetics & antiseptics Answer 6
Polytheistic They worshiped gods of nature - the sun god, the god of thunder, Moon, rainbows, mountain tops, stars, planets, and many more. The Incas were known as the "Children of the Sun". Like the ancient Greeks, the Incas believed the gods could intervene to help you or hinder you. To avoid problems, they worshiped all the gods every day. Every month, the Incas held a major religious festival. Festivals were held outside. Games, songs, dancing, food, parades, and sacrifice (of animals usually) were all part of the festivities. If something special was happening, like the crowning of a new emperor or a drought, the Incas would include human sacrifice as part of the festival. Most important God was Inti the Sun God Chosen Women were specially trained and served the gods as well as the Sapa Inca & Coya
Times New Roman Comic Sans MS Arial Προεπιλεγμένη σχεδίαση Bitmap Image Etwinning 2006 Elefsina-Perugia Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση ...
Times New Roman Arial Georgia Calibri Blank 1_Blank PowerPoint Presentation Figure 23.17 The Respiratory Muscles Thoracic Volume Figure 23.18 Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Gas exchage at respiratory surface Figure 23.24 Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood Gas exchange at the tissue...
Integrated Marketing Communications Definition: The practice of unifying all marketing communication tools to send target audiences a consistent, persuasive message. But also concerned with all types of stakeholders Concerned with planned and unplanned messages
Who always wants to be neat and tidy? Who doesn't look like a detective? ... Find the synonyms from the text. well known. unusual. amazing. clever. ordinary. loyal. Check the answers. well known - famous. unusual - strange. amazing -...
Marie Skłodowska- Curie Actions, an Irish Success Story. Data based on Contracts signed as of March 2015. €97 million. Ireland's "Take" from Horizon 2020 to-date. €13.3 million. Portion of this secured via MSCA
unto his place, into the Oracle of the House, to the Holy of Holies, even under the wings of the Cherubims. 7 For the Cherubims spread forth their two wings over the place of the Ark, and the Cherubims covered...
Solar Rights: protecting the ability to install solar energy systems on residential and commercial property that is subject to private restrictions as well as local government ordinances and building codes (163.04) Solar easements are the prevalent method of assuring solar...
I CAN: define . protists. and their characteristics. Review-Spontaneous Generation-Cell theory (Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow)-Cells - Robert Hooke ... Protists are a mix of organisms that don't exactly fit into the animal, plant, or fungus kingdoms…and sort of fits into all...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!