Chapter 7 - Arrays and Array Lists

Chapter 7 - Arrays and Array Lists

Array Lists An array list stores a sequence of values whose size can change. An array list can grow and shrink as needed. ArrayList class supplies methods for many common tasks, such as inserting and removing elements. An array list expands to hold as many elements as needed. Syntax 7.4 Array Lists Declaring and Using Array Lists To declare an array list of strings ArrayList names = new ArrayList(); To use an array list import java.util.ArrayList;

ArrayList is a generic class Angle brackets denote a type parameter Replace String with any other class to get a different array list type Declaring and Using Array Lists ArrayList is first constructed, it has size 0 Use the add method to add an object to the end of the array list: names.add("Emily"); // Now names has size 1 and element "Emily" names.add("Bob"); // Now names has size 2 and elements "Emily", "Bob" names.add("Cindy"); // names has size 3 and elements "Emily", "Bob", and "Cindy" The size method gives the current size of the array

list. Size is now 3 Figure 17 Adding an Array List Element with add Declaring and Using Array Lists To obtain an array list element, use the get method Index starts at 0 To retrieve the name with index 2: String name = names.get(2); // Gets the third element of the array list

The last valid index is names.size() - 1 A common bounds error: int i = names.size(); name = names.get(i); // Error To set an array list element to a new value, use the set method: names.set(2, "Carolyn"); Declaring and Using Array Lists An array list has methods for adding and removing elements in the middle. This statement adds a new element at position 1 and moves all elements with index 1 or larger by one position. names.add(1, "Ann")

The remove method, removes the element at a given position moves all elements after the removed element down by one position and reduces the size of the array list by 1. names.remove(1); To print an array list: System.out.println(names); // Prints [Emily, Bob, Carolyn] Declaring and Using Array Lists Figure 18 Adding and Removing Elements in the Middle of an Array List Using the Enhanced for Loop with Array Lists You can use the enhanced for loop to visit all the elements of an array list ArrayList names = . . . ;

for (String name : names) { System.out.println(name); } This is equivalent to: for (int i = 0; i < names.size(); i++) { String name = names.get(i); System.out.println(name); } Copying Array Lists Copying an array list reference yields two references to the same array list. After the code below is executed Both names and friends reference the same array list to which the string "Harry" was

added. ArrayList friends = names; friends.add("Harry"); Figure 19 Copying an Array List Reference To make a copy of an array list, construct the copy and pass the original list into the constructor: ArrayList newNames = new ArrayList(names); Working with Array Lists ArrayList names = new ArrayList(); Constructs an empty array list that can hold strings.

names.add("Ann"); names.add("Cindy"); Adds elements to the end. System.out.println(names); Prints [Ann, Cindy]. names.add(1, "Bob"); Inserts an element at index 1. names is now [Ann, Bob, Cindy]. names.remove(0);

Removes the element at index 0. names is now [Bob, Cindy]. names.set(0, "Bill"); Replaces an element with a different value. names is now [Bill, Cindy]. String name = names.get(i); Gets an element. String last = names.get(names.size() - 1); Gets the last element.

ArrayList squares = new ArrayList(); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { squares.add(i * i); } Constructs an array list holding the first ten squares. Wrapper Classes You cannot directly insert primitive type values into array lists. Like truffles that must be in a wrapper to be sold, a number must be placed in a wrapper to be stored in an array list.

Use the matching wrapper class. Wrapper Classes To collect double values in an array list, you use an ArrayList. if you assign a double value to a Double variable, the number is automatically put into a box Called auto-boxing: Automatic conversion between primitive types and the corresponding wrapper classes: Double wrapper = 29.95; Wrapper values are automatically unboxed to primitive types double x = wrapper; Figure 20 A Wrapper Class Variable Using Array Algorithms with Array Lists

The array algorithms can be converted to array lists simply by using the array list methods instead of the array syntax. Code to find the largest element in an array: double largest = values[0]; for (int i = 1; i < values.length; i++) { if (values[i] > largest) { largest = values[i]; } } Code to find the largest element in an array list double largest = values.get(0); for (int i = 1; i < values.size(); i++) {

if (values.get(i) > largest) { largest = values.get(i); } } Storing Input Values in an Array List To collect an unknown number of inputs, array lists are much easier to use than arrays. Simply read the inputs and add them to an array list: ArrayList inputs = new ArrayList(); while (in.hasNextDouble()) { inputs.add(in.nextDouble()); }

Removing Matches To remove elements from an array list, call the remove method. Error: skips the element after the moved element ArrayList words = ...; for (int i = 0; i < words.size(); i++) { String word = words.get(i); if (word.length() < 4) { Remove the element at index i. } } Concrete example Should not increment i when an element is

removed Removing Matches Pseudocode If the element at index i matches the condition Remove the element. Else Increment i. Use a while loop, not a for loop int i = 0; while (i < words.size()) { String word = words.get(i);

if (word.length() < 4) { words.remove(i); } else { i++; } } Choosing Between Array Lists and Arrays For most programming tasks, array lists are easier to use than arrays Array lists can grow and shrink. Arrays have a nicer syntax. Recommendations

If the size of a collection never changes, use an array. If you collect a long sequence of primitive type values and you are concerned about efficiency, use an array. Otherwise, use an array list. Choosing Between Array Lists and Arrays section_7/ 1 2 3 4 5 import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.Scanner; /** This program reads a sequence of values and prints them, marking the largest value. 6 */ 7 public class LargestInArrayList 8 { 9 public static void main(String[] args) 10 { 11 ArrayList values = new ArrayList(); // Read

12 13 inputs System.out.println("Please enter values, Q to quit:"); 14 Scanner in = new Scanner(; 15 while (in.hasNextDouble()) 16 { 17 values.add(in.nextDouble()); 18 } 19 20

// Find the largest 21 22 value double largest = values.get(0); 23 for (int i = 1; i < values.size(); i++) 24 { 25 if (values.get(i) > largest) 26 { 27 largest = values.get(i); 28

} 29 } 30 31 // Print all values, marking the 32 33 largest 34 35 for (double element : values) Program Run: Please enter values, Q to quit: 35 80 115 44.5 Q

35 80 115 <== largest value 44.5 Self Check 7.35 Declare an array list primes of integers that contains the first five prime numbers (2, 3, 5, 7, and 11). Answer: ArrayList primes = new ArrayList(); primes.add(2); primes.add(3); primes.add(5); primes.add(7); primes.add(11); Self Check 7.36

Given the array list primes declared in Self Check 35, write a loop to print its elements in reverse order, starting with the last element. Answer: for (int i = primes.size() - 1; i >= 0; i--) { System.out.println(primes.get(i)); } Self Check 7.37 What does the array list names contain after the following statements? ArrayList names = new ArrayList; names.add("Bob"); names.add(0, "Ann"); names.remove(1); names.add("Cal");

Answer: "Ann", "Cal" Self Check 7.38 What is wrong with this code snippet? ArrayList names; names.add(Bob); Answer: The names variable has not been initialized. Self Check 7.39 Consider this method that appends the elements of one array list to another: public void append(ArrayList target, ArrayList source) { for (int i = 0; i < source.size(); i++)

{ target.add(source.get(i)); } } What are the contents of names1 and names2 after these statements? ArrayList names1 = new ArrayList(); names1.add("Emily"); names1.add("Bob"); names1.add("Cindy"); ArrayList names2 = new ArrayList(); names2.add("Dave"); append(names1, names2); Answer: names1 contains "Emily", "Bob", "Cindy", "Dave";

names2 contains "Dave" Self Check 7.40 Suppose you want to store the names of the weekdays. Should you use an array list or an array of seven strings? Answer: Because the number of weekdays doesnt change, there is no disadvantage to using an array, and it is easier to initialize: String[] weekdayNames = { "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", Friday, "Saturday", "Sunday" }; Self Check 7.41 The ch07/section_7 directory of your source code contains an alternate implementation of the problem solution in How To 7.1 on page 330. Compare the array and array list implementations. What is

the primary advantage of the latter? Answer: Reading inputs into an array list is much easier. Regression Testing Test suite: a set of tests for repeated testing Cycling: bug that is fixed but reappears in later versions Regression testing: involves repeating previously run tests to ensure that known failures of prior versions do not appear in new versions Regression Testing - Two Approaches Organize a suite of test with multiple tester classes: ScoreTester1, ScoreTester2, ... public class ScoreTester1 { public static void main(String[] args)

{ Student fred = new Student(100); fred.addScore(10); fred.addScore(20); fred.addScore(5); System.out.println("Final score: " + fred.finalScore()); System.out.println("Expected: 30"); } } Provide a generic tester, and feed it inputs from multiple files. section_8/ Generic tester: 1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 import java.util.Scanner; public class ScoreTester { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner in = new Scanner(; double expected = in.nextDouble(); Student fred = new Student(100); while (in.hasNextDouble()) { if (!fred.addScore(in.nextDouble())) {

System.out.println("Too many scores."); return; } } System.out.println("Final score: " + fred.finalScore()); System.out.println("Expected: " + expected); } } Input and Output Redirection Section_8/ input1.txt 30 10

20 5 Type the following command into a shell window Input redirection java ScoreTester < input1.txt Program Run: Final score: 30 Expected: 30 Output redirection: java ScoreTester < input1.txt > output1.txt Self Check 7.42 Suppose you modified the code for a method. Why do you want to repeat tests that already passed with

the previous version of the code? Answer: It is possible to introduce errors when modifying code. Self Check 7.43 Suppose a customer of your program finds an error. What action should you take beyond fixing the error? Answer: Add a test case to the test suite that verifies that the error is fixed. Self Check 7.44 Why doesn't the ScoreTester program contain prompts for the inputs? Answer: There is no human user who would see the prompts because input is provided from a file.

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