Chapter 7 The Classical Era in the East, India and China Page 1: Essential Questions (skip 5 lines) 1) What were the major accomplishments of the civilization of India during the Classical Era? (2,4,6,) 2) What were the major accomplishments of the civilization of China during the Classical Era? (8,10)
3) How did Eastern civilizations (India and China) compare with the civilizations of the West? (Greece and Rome) 4) What factors contributed to the rise and fall of empires and dynasties in the East (China) and the West (Rome)? (12,14) Page 3: Key Vocabulary: (skip 3-4 lines) 1) Aryans 2) Emperor Asoka
12) Great Wall of China 13) Buddha 14) Mandate of Heaven 15) Han Dynasty Page 2: Empires of India Aryan Invasion Indus River Valley Civilization Collapses Aryans conquered Dravidians that lived there
Aryans 1500 B.C. came across Himalayas through a mountain pass from Asia Nomadic, herded cattle, fought for resources Contributions: iron weapons, horse drawn chariots, Sanskrit writingtaught only to wealthy higher castes Aryan Invasion (continuation) Moved toward Ganges River pushed Dravidians south 900 B.C Aryans set up city-states in river valleys, each with its own ruler
________________________________________________________ Hinduism Hinduism- new polytheistic religion brought by the Aryans, provided and entire way of life, served as guide from birth to death No single text: Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Vedas Caste System A New social order Mixing of Dravidian and Aryans led to new system of social
organization Only Aryans could occupy a high social class People divided into 5 hereditary classes Priests Warriors Landowners Peasants UNTOUCHABLES
Caste System (continuation) How Caste System was designed Based on birth No social mobility Could not marry outside of caste Untouchables are completely outside of the social order (handled dead bodies, swept streets and animal waste) Page 4: Buddhism
Began in N. India 500 B.C. Siddhartha Guatama was a wealthy prince in Nepal Ventured outside palace walls and saw human suffering left wife and 2 kids in search of truth 6 years of searching found suffering caused by selfish human desires To end suffering a person has to accept world as it is and block out desires He became Enlightened One = Buddha
Page 5: Bubble Map Create a Bubble Map featuring the religion of Buddhism and Siddhartha Guatama. Spread of Buddhism Many followers attracted to Buddhism Rejected the caste system Spread to: N. India toward China, Thailand, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan
Mauryan Empire (321 B.C. - 232 C.E) Shortly after Alexander the Great invaded NW India, Chandragupta Maurya establishes the Mauryan Empire and challenged the Greeks Empire stretched from Afghanistan to Ganges River After Chandragupta, his grandson Asoka became the next great ruler
Asoka Loyalty from his people through acts of kindness People of all religions will coexist Improved roads, built: hospitals, formal schools, shrines Promoted Buddhism Sent missionaries throughout India and beyond Upon Asokas death, the empire fell apart Page 6: Gupta Empire (320 A.D.
535 A.D.) Gupta family became ruling family United territory around Ganges River Encouraged peace, prosperity, trade with foreign lands--China especially 200 years of Gupta rule known as Golden Age of Hindu Culture The Golden Age of Hindu Culture
The Gupta Empire Period of time marked by peace and stability Great strides in art and literature Built universities Music and plays written in Sanskrit Gupta Contributions Excelled in science and math
Concept of zero, Infinity, decimal system, Arabic numerals Earth is round, Astronomy ( earth rotates on invisible axis) Calculated solar year Physicians set bones and skin grafts Gupta Empire Ends (500 A.D.) Huns Attacked from central Asia Warlike tribe
Invades NE India Gupta Empire disintegrated into smaller states Page 8: Dynasties of China (1027 B.C. 220 A.D.) Chinese history is divided into periods of history based upon 3 Dynasties/ruling families _________________________________________________________ Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C. 221 B.C.)
1027 the Shang were conquered Zhou dynasty took over, justifying their rule through the Mandate of Heaven Ruler was chosen by Heaven to overthrow bad ruler Later rulers would use this as basis for their reign and authority Page 7: Bubble Map Create a bubble map featuring Chinese philosophy of Confucianism.
Zhou Rulers System of giving land to nobles in exchange for military service Nobles became too powerful to control Civil war began Zhou Contributions Confucius (Confucianism) Sought to bring order to Chinas social and political life Lao Tzu: looked more to peace and inner stability for people
Confucianism Philosophy Based on what he believed was basic order of universe Stressed following traditional ways, which working towards peace and harmony Live up to your name, fulfill your social obligations Valued: obedience and order, family including childrens devotion to parents, family served as model for society, emphasized duties and
good deeds Page 10: Daoism (Taoism) Chinese philosophy (5th century) Based on teachings of Lau Tzu Nature has a WAY DAO in which it moves You should accept the WAY not try to change it If you fight against it, it will work against you Enlightenment achieved through non-striving
Enjoy nature, use meditation to let go of earthly concerns Qin Dynasty (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) Shih Huang-ti lord of Qin (Chin) Ruler who unified all of China through conquest 1st Chinese Emperor Believed people are not good, they need strong ruler to punish
wrongs Harsh ruler rejected Confucianism Persecuted scholars and burnt Confucian books Page 9: Applying what you have learned 1) On page 89: How does this description of the way compare to Western religious ideas about God 2) On page 85: read the Four Noble Truths. Based on
that reading and this reading on Daoism, how do these religions or beliefs systems differ? How are they alike? Qin Dynasty (continuation) Shihs Accomplishments Centralized power by dividing China into districts with own military leader Joined walls to form Great Wall of China/protection from Mongols Immense tomb with army of terracotta/clay soldiers
UNIFIED AND CENTRALIZED CHINA Page 12: HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C. 220 A.D) Shih dies, people rebel (rule was harsh) Civil war breaks out Han Empire emerges
Han Contributions New type of paper, lead glazed ceramics, silk weavings,civil service exams Page 11: Bubble Map Create a bubble map featuring the accomplishments/contributions of the Han Dynasty.
Civil Service Exams Based on Confucian Teachings Applicants tested on knowledge of history and Confucian ideas Imperial service no longer a right passed down Commoners could now move up social ladder Confucianism began to unite all govt. and upper class of China Silk Road Overland trade route from China to Roman Empire
Merchants carried goods by camel caravan Silk, iron, bronze in exchange for: gold, linen, glass ivory, animal hides, horses, cattle Buddhism spread into ChinaCultural Diffusion Children and Women (Han) Wealthy families had many children Sons could serve in govt. Daughters could marry into more wealth
Wealthy women treated well and influential In childhood obeyed their fathers In adulthood obeyed their husbands In old age obeyed their sons Han Schools Public schools for boys only Taught: respect for parents (filial piety), looking after ones parents in old age
________________________________________________________ Page 14: Fall of Han Dynasty Rebellion against authority More power given to provincial governors to appease them Power to raise army Power to raise taxes Governors became warlords Economic hardship
221 last Han emperor turns into independent warlord Han China collapsed into Civil War and split apart into separate states The End of the Empires Why do Han and Roman Empires fall? Too large of areas to defend Too much power given to rulers Incapable rulers
Corruption and unequal distribution of wealth High taxes to support army Constant invasions (Rome-Germanic tribes Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals) and for China (Huns, Mongols) Page 13: Compare and Contrast (skip 6 lines) 1) In what ways were the collapse of the Han and Roman Empires similar?
2) Are there any lessons that can be learned by present-day world leaders from the factors that led to the fall of either of these 2 empires?
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