Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas - netBlueprint.net

Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas - netBlueprint.net

H2O Chemical Names and Formulas Naming Ions OBJECTIVES: Identify the charges on monatomic ions by using the periodic table, and name the ions.

Naming Ions OBJECTIVES: Define a polyatomic ion and write the names and formulas of the most common polyatomic ions. Naming Ions OBJECTIVES: Identify the two common endings for the names of

most polyatomic ions. Atoms Atoms and Ions are electrically neutral. Because there is the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-). Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms,

with a charge (positive or negative) They have different numbers of protons and electrons. Only electrons can move, and ions are made by gaining or losing electrons. An Anion is A negative

ion. Has gained electrons. Nonmetals can gain electrons. Charge is written as a superscript on the right. 1- F 2O

Has gained one electron (-ide is new ending = fluoride) Gained two electrons (oxide) A Cation is A positive ion. Formed by losing electrons. More protons than electrons. Metals can lose electrons K

1+ 2+ Ca Has lost one electron (no name change for positive ions) Has lost two electrons Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1A: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H1+ Li1+

Na1+ K1+ Rb1+ Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2A: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Predicting Ionic Charges B3+ Al3+

Ga3+ Group 3A: Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions Predicting Ionic Charges Neither! Group 4A elements rarely form ions (they tend to share)

Group 4A: Do they lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons? Predicting Ionic Charges N3- Nitride P3- Phosphide As3- Arsenide

Group 5A:Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions Predicting Ionic Charges O2- Oxide S2- Sulfide Se2- Selenide Group 6A:Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions

Predicting Ionic Charges F1- Fluoride Cl1- Chloride Group 7A:Gains 1 Br1- Bromide electron to form I1- Iodide 1- ions Predicting Ionic Charges Group 8A: Stable noble gases do not

form ions! Predicting Ionic Charges Group B elements: Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Note the use of Roman Iron (II) = Fe2+ numerals to show charges Iron (III) = Fe3+ Naming cations

Two methods can clarify when more than one charge is possible: 1) Stock system uses roman numerals in parenthesis to indicate the numerical value 2) Classical method uses root word with suffixes (-ous, -ic) Does not give true value Naming cations We

will use the Stock system. Cation - if the charge is always the same (like in the Group A metals) just write the name of the metal. Transition metals can have more than one type of charge. Indicate their charge as a roman numeral in parenthesis after the name of the metal Predicting Ionic Charges Some of the post-transition elements also

have more than one possible oxidation state. Tin (II) = Sn2+ Lead (II) = Pb2+ Tin (IV) = Sn4+ Lead (IV) = Pb 4+ Predicting Ionic Charges Group B elements: Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state, such as these three: Silver = Ag1+

Zinc = Zn2+ Cadmium = Cd2+ Exceptions: Some of the transition metals have only one ionic charge: Do not need to use roman numerals for these: Silver is always 1+ (Ag1+) Cadmium and Zinc are always

2+ (Cd2+ and Zn2+) Practice by naming these: Na1+ Ca2+ Al3+ Fe3+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Li1+ Write symbols for these: Potassium ion

Magnesium ion Copper (II) ion Chromium (VI) ion Barium ion Mercury (II) ion Naming Anions Anions are always the same charge Change the monatomic element ending to ide

F1- a Fluorine atom will become a Fluoride ion. Practice by naming these: Cl1N3Br1O2Ga3+ Write symbols for these: Sulfide ion Iodide ion Phosphide ion Strontium ion

Polyatomic ions are Groups of atoms that stay together and have an overall charge, and one name. Usually end in ate or -ite Acetate: C2H3O21-

Nitrate: NO31- Nitrite: Permanganate: MnO41- Hydroxide: OH1- and Cyanide: CN1-?

NO21- Sulfate: SO 24 Sulfite: SO 23 3Phosphate: PO4 Phosphite: PO 33 Carbonate: CO32

1+ Ammonium: NH (One of the few positive 4 Chromate: CrO42-

2Dichromate: Cr O 7 with H, then combine the If the polyatomic ion 2begins polyatomic ions) word hydrogen with the other polyatomic ion present: H1+ + CO32- HCO31hydrogen + carbonate hydrogen carbonate ion Naming and Writing

Formulas for Ionic Compounds OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary ionic compounds. Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds OBJECTIVES:

Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for compounds containing polyatomic ions. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Ba2+( NO3)-

2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance subscripts. Now balanced. Not = Ba(NO3)2 balanced!

2 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. ( NH4)+ SO422

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. Now balanced. Not = (NH4)2SO4 balanced! Writing Ionic Compound

Formulas Example: Iron (III) chloride (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Fe Cl3 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a

polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts. 3+ - Now balanced. Not = FeCl balanced! 3 Writing Ionic Compound

Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts.

2Al3+ S 2 3 Now balanced. Not = Al S 2 3 balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Mg 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. They are

balanced! 2+ CO3 = MgCO3 2- Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide (note the 2 word name)

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Zn2+ ( OH)- 2 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Use the criss-cross method to balance the subscripts.

Now balanced. Not = Zn(OH) balanced! 2 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate (note the 2 word name) 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Al3+ PO43They ARE balanced! = AlPO4 Naming Ionic Compounds 1. Name the cation first, then anion

2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl- = chloride CaCl2 = calcium chloride

Naming Ionic Compounds (Metals with multiple oxidation states) some metals can form more than one charge (usually the transition metals) use a Roman numeral in their name: PbCl2 use the anion to find the charge on the cation (chloride is always 1-) Pb2+ is the lead (II) cation PbCl2 = lead (II) chloride

Things to look for: 1) If cations have ( ), the number in parenthesis is their charge. 2) If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic) 3) If anion ends in -ate or ite, then it is polyatomic Practice by writing the formula or name as required

Iron (II) Phosphate Stannous Fluoride Potassium Sulfide Ammonium Chromate MgSO 4 FeCl 3 Naming and Writing Formulas

for Molecular Compounds OBJECTIVES: Interpret the prefixes in the names of molecular compounds in terms of their chemical formulas. Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules for naming

and writing formulas for binary molecular compounds. Molecular compounds are made of just nonmetals smallest piece is a molecule cant be held together by opposite charge attraction cant use charges to figure out how many of each atom (there

are no charges present) Molecular compounds are easier! Ionic compounds use charges to determine how many of each. You have to figure out charges. May need to criss-cross numbers. compounds: the name tells you the number of atoms. Molecular

Uses prefixes to tell you the exact number of each element present! Prefixes (Table 9.4, p.269) 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa Prefixes 9 = nona 10 = deca To write the name, write two words: Prefix & name

Prefix & name -ide Prefixes 9 = nona 10 = deca To write the name, write two words: Prefix name Prefix name -ide One exception is we dont write mono if there is only one of the first element. Prefixes 9 = nona 10 = deca To write the name, write two words:

Prefix name isPrefix name One exception we dont write -ide mono if there is only one of the first element. Normally, we do not have double vowels when writing names (oa oo)

Practice by naming these: N = dinitrogen monoxide O 2 (also called nitrous oxide or laughing gas)

NO 2 Cl 2 O7 CBr 4

CO 2 BaCl 2 = nitrogen dioxide = dichlorine heptoxide = carbon tetrabromide = carbon dioxide

(This one will not use prefixes, since it is an ionic compound!) Write formulas for these: diphosphorus pentoxide tetraiodine nonoxide sulfur hexafluoride nitrogen trioxide carbon tetrahydride phosphorus trifluoride aluminum chloride (Ionic compound)

Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases OBJECTIVES: Apply three rules for naming acids. Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules in reverse

to write formulas of acids. Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules for naming bases. Acids are Compounds that give off hydrogen ions (H1+) when dissolved in water (the Arrhenius definition)

Will start the formula with H. There will always be some Hydrogen next to an anion. The anion determines the name. Rules for Naming acids: Name it as a normal 1) If the anion attached to compound first

hydrogen ends in -ide, put the prefix hydro- and change -ide to -ic acid HCl - hydrogen ion and chloride ion = hydrochloric acid H S hydrogen ion and sulfide ion 2 = hydrosulfuric acid Naming Acids

If the anion has oxygen in it, then it ends in -ate or -ite 2) change the suffix -ate to -ic acid (use no prefix) Example: HNO3 Hydrogen and nitrate ions = Nitric acid 3) change the suffix -ite to -ous acid (use no prefix) Example: HNO2 Hydrogen and nitrite ions = Nitrous acid Naming Acids

Normal ending Acid name is ____-ide hydro-___-ic acid ____-ate _____-ic acid ____-ite

_____-ous acid 2 additional rules (not mentioned in the book) 4) If the acid has 1 more oxygen than the ic acid, add the prefix pera. HClO3 (Hydrogen Chlorate) is chloric acid b. HClO4 would be perchloric acid 5) If there is 1 less oxygen than the -ous acid, add the prefix hypo

HClO2 (Hydrogen Chlorite) is chlorous acid, then HClO would be hypochlorous acid Practice by naming these: HF H P 3 H SO 2 4 H SO 2

3 HCN H CrO 2 4 Writing Acid Formulas in reverse! Hydrogen will be listed first The name will tell you the anion Be sure the charges cancel out. Starts with prefix hydro?- there is no oxygen, -ide ending for anion no prefix hydro?

1) -ate anion comes from ic ending 2) -ite anion comes from ous ending Write formulas for these: hydroiodic acid acetic acid carbonic acid phosphorous acid hydrobromic acid Names and Formulas for Bases A base

is an ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH1-) when dissolved in water Bases are named the same way as other ionic compounds: (the Arrhenius definition) The name of the cation (which is a metal) is followed by the name of the anion (which will be hydroxide). Names and Formulas for Bases

NaOH is sodium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 is calcium hydroxide To write the formula: 1) Write the symbol for the metal cation 2) followed by the formula for the hydroxide ion (OH1-) 3) then use the criss-cross method to balance the charges.

Practice by writing the formula for the following: Magnesium hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Zinc hydroxide The Laws Governing Formulas and Names OBJECTIVES:

Define the laws of definite proportions and multiple proportions. The Laws Governing Formulas and Names OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules for naming chemical compounds by using a flowchart. The Laws Governing

Formulas and Names OBJECTIVES: Apply the rules for writing the formulas of chemial compounds by using a flowchart. Some Laws: 1. Law of Definite Proportionsin a sample of a chemical compound, the masses of the

elements are always in the same proportions. H O (water) and H O 2 2 2 (hydrogen peroxide) Some Laws: 2. Law of Multiple ProportionsDalton stated that whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of

one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers. - Page 275 Same mass of oxygen Helpful to remember... 1. In an ionic compound, the net ionic charge is zero (criss-cross method)

2. An -ide ending generally indicates a binary compound 3. An -ite or -ate ending means there is a polyatomic ion that has oxygen 4. Prefixes generally mean molecular; they show the number of each atom Helpful to remember... 5. A Roman numeral after the name of a cation is the ionic charge of the cation

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