Chapter Eleven

Chapter Eleven

Congress It could probably be shown with facts and figures that there is no distinctly American criminal class except for Congress Mark Twain Madisons Model Logic of two chambers Logic of elections Logic of constituents, popular and state Logic of specifying tasks Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 2 Revolutionary Change in Congress Four factors of importance Individual members and their districts Committees Parties Leadership Pre-1995 the factors were in descending order, Post-1995 they switched Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 3 Congressional Committees System whereby most of the work in Congress is done by smaller groups 1. Standing, 2. Conference, 3. Select, and 4. Joint Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 4 Policy and Finance Power in Congress Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 5 Committee System Developed expertise Developed iron triangles: alliances between legislator, lobbyists and bureaucracy Mini version of the Chamber allowing

members to work out differences in committee rather than in a battle on the chambers floor Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 6 Parties in Congress: HOUSE Republican Conferences select Speaker, Majority Leader, Majority Whip Budget Committee, Rules Committee, Committee on Committees Policy which along with Committee on Committees make assignments for all party

members. Democratic Caucuses Structure similar for Democrats but dont elect Speaker. Do elect Minority Leader, Minority Whip etc. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 7 Parties in Congress: SENATE Party Conference (Caucus) Party leader, party whip, Campaign Committee

With NOMINATIONS FROM Party LEADER Caucus elects members to Budget, Policy, and Steering Committee Party Leader assigns persons to Partys Select Committee Worst Job in Senate? No power, no vote, political limbo. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 8 Summary of Congressional Leadership

Speaker of the House of Representatives Majority Leader Minority Leader Majority Whip Minority Whip Chairs of important committees e.g. budget, policy and steering.

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 9 How a Bill Becomes a Law (pg.330) Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 10 THE GINGRICH REVOLUTION Committee system only a shell Party leadership selects committee members Party leadership select chairs of committees

and sub committees Selection not on seniority, expertise, or party contribution but loyalty to leadership If leadership doesnt like committee positionby passes committee with task forces that propose legislation and place on floor Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 11 The Permanent Campaign Another change in Congress since the 1970 is a de-emphasis on legislation and a permanent emphasis on running for

office. This permanent campaign requires a continuous influx of money which reinforced the power of party leaders. With a concentration of decision making power and money Congress became awash in scandals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 12 The Incumbent Advantage Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 13 Congress and the Presidency Budgetary politics Foreign policy Oversight Review by committees of the operations of executive branch agencies Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 14

SURVEY- In a Republic... 1. Do the ends justify the means? Means matter equally OR means dont matter 2. A representatives first consideration when voting on legislation should be? Constituents Position of his/her political party, or Party leaderships agenda

3. Trading a vote in Congress for campaign support is appropriate? No or Yes Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 15 SURVEY- In a Republic...(2) 4.Trading a vote in Congress in one area e.g. support for agri-bill in exchange for another e.g. housing is appropriate?

Yes or No 5. Political leaders are able to build consensus around a bill if its merits outweigh its shortcomings. Yes, consensus is indicator of merit No, belief in consensus is ideal not practical in large legislature Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 16 SURVEY- In a Republic...(3) 6. Federal administrators with information about a

bill under consideration by Congress should provide information Yes, in all casesno exceptions Yes, in most but some limited exceptions No, Executive determines what is provided to Congress. 7. All hearings, votes and decisions of Congress should be taped and televised. Yes Only major pieces should be taped/televised No, publish in Congressional Record only. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 17 Survey Feedback 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Means v. Ends First Consideration should be Vote for Campaign support

Vote for Vote Consensus ideal v. impractical Administrator information Congressional Coverage Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 | 18 The Price of Victory 15 minute tape on Congressional decision regarding Prescription Drug legislation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 | 19

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