Chapter Fifteen Road Map to Argumentation and Persuasion

Chapter Fifteen Road Map to Argumentation and Persuasion

Chapter Fifteen Road Map to Argumentation and Persuasion What Argument and Persuasion Do An argument appeals by reason and logic. Persuasion appeals by logic and emotion.

Reason tells why and how Logic is what makes sense Logic is what makes sense Emotional appeals affect the reader or listeners emotions With argumentation, when you have an essay or speech, the aim is to persuade the reader or listener. When writing an argument, writers define, describe, and narrate throughout the argument. When Do I Use Argumentation and

Persuasion? Use argumentation and persuasion when we want someone to see a topic through our eyes. Use argumentation and persuasion when we are trying to get someone on our side of an issue. How Do I Use Persuasion? Use credible sources to support your opinions.

For example, a doctor should write a medical paper rather than a gas station owner. Quality of Reasoning--Be sure your logic is sound, the facts are supported, and the details are reasonable. Appeal to self-interests; we are more likely to believe an argument if there is something in it for us. If your argument is not reasoned logically, it is

unlikely to be effective. Seven Points of Persuasion to Consider Begin Your Argument at the Point of Contention Draw Your Evidence from Multiple Sources Pace Your Argument with some Obvious Movement Begin Your Argument with an Assumption that is either Grounded in Evidence or Defensible

Anticipate the Opposition Supplement Your Reasoning and Evidence with an Emotional Appeal Avoid Common Logical Fallacies Begin Your Argument at the Point of Contention Dont beat around the bush. Start the paper with what you want to argue. Stay focused.

See example on page 571. Draw Your Evidence from Multiple Sources Dont use just one source. More sources make your paper stronger. Multiple sources means multiple viewpoints and more information. Pace Your Argument with some Obvious Movement

Dont pack too much evidence in one paragraph. Imagine the typical readers reactions to any argumentative essay or speech. Use provocative introductions Be clear and forceful with your argument Supply evidence and facts Restate the thesis Begin Your Argument with an Assumption That is Either Grounded in Evidence or Defensible You should not attempt to argue the unarguable or prove the improvable. Stick

to what can be proven! See examples page 572. Anticipate the Opposition Be aware of the other sides argument and address that argument in your paper. Then, prove why that argument is incorrect or why your argument is better. See example page 573. Supplement Your Reasoning and

Evidence with an Emotional Appeal When using emotional appeals, you need to exercise discretion and caution. Emotional appeals can be highly persuasive and dramatizing when used in small doses. Emotional appeals must be supported by evidence. See example on page 573.

Avoid Common Logical Fallacies Logical fallacies occur when you draw a conclusion that is false or deceptive. Ad hominemattack an individual rather than the argument. Ad populumappeals to passions or prejudices shared by large segments of people. False analogymistakenly compares to situations which have

some commonalities but are not alike in all respects. Begging the questionkeeps saying the same thing over and over. Ignoring the questionavoids the situation or topic. Either or reasoningseeing the issue for what it is, leaves out issues in between Hasty generalizationdraws conclusions that are false. Non sequiturhas a faulty premise. See example page 575

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