Chapter Six - Metropolitan Community College

The Emergence of Homo Sapiens Introduction Transition from Homo erectus areas of agreement areas of disagreement fossils with mixed traits Africa

/ Europe / Asia Introduction (cont.) Transition (cont.) fossils < 200,000 years old definitely Homo sapiens Neanderthals

Early Discoveries 1856 - Neander Valley, Germany other fossil finds later fossils concentrated in Europe did not evolve glaciation Neanderthals (cont.)

Early Discoveries (cont.) disappeared 30,000 ya closely related to H. sapiens Neanderthals (cont.) Physical Characteristics brutish appearance larger braincase than modern humans

large hands / fingers Neanderthals (cont.) Tool Assemblages Middle Paleolithic cultural period Africa - Middle Stone Age Mousterian

Africa tool assemblage - post Acheulian Neanderthals (cont.) Tool Assemblages (cont.) small flake tools Levalloisian Method Flake-tool manufacture Chipped of a specially prepared core of rock

Resulted in uniform and specialized small blades for sawing, gouging, piercing, and preparing animal hides for clothing Neanderthals (cont.) Homesites caves most open

& rock shelters common excavations sites Neanderthals (cont.) Funeral Rituals? deliberate burials examples of possible rituals Le

Moustier Shanidar Cave, Iraq Emergence of Modern Humans (H. sapiens sapiens) Cro-Magnon humans named after rock shelter - France oldest fossils - Africa

100,000 ya? H. sapiens sapiens (cont.) Cro-Magnon humans (cont.) many other finds physical characteristics modern looking Upper Paleolithic Cultures

Introduction Upper Paleolithic 40,000 - 10,000 ya Lifestyles Upper Paleolithic (cont.)

Tool technology indirect percussion hammer-struck punch bone & antler tools burins pressure

flaking microliths Upper Paleolithic (cont.) Art early beads Venus

/ carvings / paintings figures cave paintings Humans in the New World Introduction H. sapiens sapiens migrated to new world no

earlier species found disagreement over earliest appearance New World (cont.) Migrations Linguistic three research

waves of migration Dental research confirms waves theory of three New World (cont.)

Tool Assemblages Clovis Complex Clovis, New Mexico large projectile point hunted large game dated 11,200-10,900 ya New World (cont.)

Tool Assemblages (cont.) Folsom Point smaller point indicated smaller game

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