Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism Kotler, Bowen, Makens and Baloglu CONSUMER MARKETS AND CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR Chapter 6 Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. Explain the model of buyer behavior. Outline the major characteristics affecting consumer behavior, and list some of the specific cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors that influence consumers. Explain the buyer decision process and discuss need recognition, information
search, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior. Consumer Behavior Marketing Stimuli: Product, Price, Place & Promo Other Stimuli: Economic, Technologi cal, Political & Cultural Buyers
responses: Product Choice, Brand choice, Dealer choice, Purchase timing, Purchase amount Buyers black box: Buyer characteri stics & decision process Cultural Factors Values Wants Cultural
Factors Perceptio ns Behaviors Cross-Cultural Marketing This is a practice of including ethnic themes and cross-cultural perspectives within the mainstream marketing of the organization. Social Factors Groups Word-ofMouth Influence and Buzz Marketing
Family Online Social Networks Role and Status Personal Factors Age & Life-Cycle Stage Lifestyle Occupatio n Personali ty & SelfConcept
The Buyer Decision Process Need Recognitio n Purchase Decision Informatio n Search Evaluation of Alternativ es Postpurcha se Behavior Key Terms
Aspirational group a group Cognitive dissonance buyer to which a person wishes to belong. discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict. Attitude a persons enduring Culture the set of basic values, favorable or unfavorable cognitive evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies toward some object or idea. perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society
from family and other important institutions. Belief a descriptive thought that Family life cycle the stages a person holds about something. through which families might pass as they mature. Brand image the set of beliefs consumers hold about a particular brand. Buzz marketing cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread information about a
product to others in their community. Group two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. Learning changes in a persons behavior arising from experience. Key Terms (cont.) Lifestyle a persons pattern of Opinion leaders people living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions. within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on
others. Membership groups groups that have a direct influence on a persons behavior and to which a person belongs. Personality a persons sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction of that need. distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her environment. Online social networks
Reference groups groups Motive a need that is online social communities blogs, social networking, Web sites, or even virtual worlds- where people socialize or exchange information and opinions. that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on a persons attitude or behavior. Role the activities that a person is expected to perform according to the persons around him or her. Key Terms (cont.) Self-concept self-image, the complex mental pictures people
have of themselves. Social classes relatively permanent and order divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. Subculture a group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
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