Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection
Early ideas about the origin of species Plato 428-348 BC 2 worlds
1 world Real and Perfect The other world Imaginary and Perceived Aristotle 348- 282 BCE Student of Plato Scala Natura an ordered ladder of things from the simple
to the complex. The species were fixed. Were near the top. Diversity of life Carlos Linaeus (Carl von Linn) 1707-1778 Father of taxonomy His life goal was to name and classify all the organisms on earth.
He did the ground work of binomial nomenclature This theory has been disproved! Lamark 1744-1849 Evolution is driven by the innate desire to improve Use caused the growth of a desired trait. Disuse cause the Deterioration of a trait. These acquired traits could then be inherited.
Eg. Ducks webbed feet, Snakes hips, a giraffe's neck A blacksmiths muscles, A concert pianists skill. Sir Charles Lyell 1797 -1875 Wrote Geologia Principia Or Principles of Geology He determined that the earth was very old.(This was radicle!!) It was billions of years old instead of the biblical thousands. Geology is constantly changing slowly
Slow continuous process can bring about a significant change CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION Who was Charles Darwin? Darwin as a boy Charles was born in 1809 on Feb 12 in Shrewsbury, England. He was the fifth of 6 children.
His father and Grandfather were both doctors, very important And to Darwin rather intimidating. Darwins Mother, Susannah died when he was 8 years and he was brought up by his sisters. In his free time he played with insects, identified plants, hiked and hunted and generally liked the outdoors. His father wanted him to become a doctor but he didnt study very hard. So he went to get a BA at Cambridge and where he partied and hiked and collected stuff and he almost failed.
Charles Darwin at 21 Darwin was spending his last summer Hunting rocks and mountain climbing in Wales before becoming a minister and earning his livelihood. His professor of theology and botany, Henslow, knew he liked Natural History and Geology He recommended him to Fitzroy as an unpaid Naturalist for a three Year voyage to map The coast of South America .
Darwin Jumped at the chance against his Fathers will. Captain Fitzroy at 23 By 23 Robert Fitzroy was an experienced Sea Captain Who had already sailed to South America and back on the Beagle. He wanted company of his own station. There were mental Health issues in his family. He was afraid loneliness might bring on paranoid tendencie He was very Christian as was Darwin. His goals were to chart the coast of Patagonia,
the worst seas in the world. He hoped Darwins identifying the Flora and Fauna and Geology of the region would help support the Genesis version of Creation. Darwin enthusiastically agreed. Voyage of the Beagle 1831 - 1836 Only 90 Feet in length Darwins Books (and tools)
Lyells Principles of Geology, Hot off the press Von Humbolts Personal Narrative (German Naturalist) Miltons Paradise Lost. Bible Tools: Binoculars, geological hammer, magnifying glass, Jars of spirits for preserving specimens.
Definitions Observations: something sensed or measured generally considered a fact. Inference: an observation + a logical guess
Hypothesis: An Educated guess that is testable. If this is true , then this will happen. If the hypothesis is tested and found wrong then its thrown out. If it is supported then its tested again and again. Theory: An Hypothesis that has been supported so many times it is now considered to be true. Often modified in the light of new evidence but rarely thrown out. Theory of Natural Selection A theory is a unifying idea that explains
observations. In over 150 years this is still the best explanation for all the evidences of evolution. Evolution is a slow change over time. It is based on 4 facts and 3 inferences Fact: Populations left alone will breed exponentially Fact: Organism produce many more offspring than actually survive. Most populations are
stable except for seasonal flux Fact:Resources are limited Inference: Since not all offspring survive, there must be a competition for resources like food, water, sunlight, space. Producing more offspring than the environment can support causes struggle for existence.
Fact: No two individuals in a population are exactly alike. Inference: Individuals that have a variation that gives them an advantage in competing for resources will survive longer. Survival is not random it depends inpart
on inherited traits Inference:
Individuals whose traits best fit their environment live longer are more likely to breed and produce more offspring. More of the successful variations will be passed down to the next generation. This unequal ability to reproduce will lead to gradual change. Favorable characteristics will accumulate. In Northern England there is a peppered moths that has two phenotypes. Dark (dominant) Light (recessive)
Which peppered moth is more likely to be eaten by Blue Jays? 1848s: before industrial revolution 1895s: after the industrial revolution1 NO POLLUTION! Trees are covered in lichen Pollution kills lichen. Trees covered with soot
from factories 98% of moths were white 2% were black 5% of the moths were white 95% were black Evolution
Evolution is a slow change over time Evolution occurs in a population not in an individual. We measure evolution by looking at the change in allele frequencies over time. Just like in the peppered moth. Now with air pollution under control the lichen is growing back on the tree and
the peppered moths have a larger white population again. Bibliography Moorehead, Alan. Darwin and the Beagle. third.
London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. 279. Print. McLaren, James E. et al. Heath Biology. Toronto, Ontario, Lexington , Mass.: DC Heath and Company, 1991. 230-247. Print. "Charles Darwin." Charles Darwin. Wikipedia, 27 March 2011 at 07:56. Web. 27 Mar 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin Kettlewell, Bernard, et al. "Peppered moth evolution." Peppered moth evolution. Wikipedia, 12 March 2011 at 09:36.. Web. 27 Mar 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peppered_moth_evolution
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