Macromolecules Chapter 3 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small building-block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of lifes organic molecules are polymers: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers A condensation reaction or more specifically a dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process Polymers are disassembled to monomers
by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 5-2a HO 1 2 3 H
Short polymer HO Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond HO 1 2 H
3 H2O 4 H Longer polymer (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer Fig. 5-2b HO 1
2 3 4 Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond HO 1 2 3
(b) Hydrolysis of a polymer H H H2O HO H Carbohydrates CH2OH H HO
O H OH H H OH H OH Energy Molecules
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH (CH22O) O)xx CC66HH1212OO66 Function: energy energy storage raw materials structural materials Monomer: sugars
ex: sugars, starches, cellulose sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar Sugars Most names for sugars end in -ose Classified by number of carbons 6C = hexose (glucose) 5C = pentose (ribose) 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde) CH2OH H HO O H
OH H 6H OH Glucose H CH2OH OH C O
H HO H 5 OH O HO H Ribose
H H C H H C OH 3OH H
Glyceraldehyde Numbered carbons C 6' 5' C O 4' C C1' energy stored in C-C bonds C3'
C2' Simple & complex sugars Monosaccharides simple 1 monomer sugars glucose Disaccharides H HO O H OH
H H OH Glucose 2 monomers sucrose Polysaccharides large polymers starch CH2OH
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H OH Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars costs little energy to build easily reversible = release energy Function: energy storage starch (plants) glycogen (animals) in liver & muscles
structure cellulose (plants) chitin (arthropods & fungi) Lipids Long term energy storage Lipids Lipids are composed of C, H, O long hydrocarbon chains (H-C) Family groups
fats phospholipids steroids Do not form polymers big molecules made of smaller subunits not a continuing chain Fats store energy Long HC chain polar or non-polar? hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Function:
energy storage concentrated all H-C! 2x carbohydrates cushion organs insulates body Phospholipids Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? fatty acid tails = hydrophobic PO head = hydrophillic 4
split personality attracted to water repelled by water Steroids Structure: 4 fused C rings + ?? different steroids created by attaching different functional groups to rings
different structure creates different function examples: cholesterol, sex hormones cholesterol Proteins Multipurpose molecules 2008-2009 Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group Function: involved in almost everything
enzymes (pepsin, DNA polymerase) structure (keratin, collagen) carriers & transport (hemoglobin, aquaporin) cell communication signals (insulin & other hormones) receptors defense (antibodies) movement (actin & myosin) storage (bean seed proteins)
Proteins Structure H2O monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex molecules complex 3-D shape
hemoglobin Rubisco growth hormones Amino acids Structure central carbon amino group carboxyl group (acid) R group (side chain) H O H ||
| N C COH H | R variable group different for each amino acid confers unique chemical properties to each amino acid like 20 different letters of an alphabet can make many words (proteins) Building proteins
Peptide bonds covalent bond between NH2 (amine) of one amino acid & COOH (carboxyl) of another CN bond H2O dehydration synthesis peptide bond Building proteins Polypeptide chains have direction
N-terminus = NH2 end C-terminus = COOH end repeated sequence (N-C-C) is the polypeptide backbone can only grow in one direction Primary (1) structure Order of amino acids in chain amino acid sequence determined by gene (DNA) slight change in amino acid sequence can affect proteins structure & its function
even just one amino acid change can make all the difference! lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria Secondary (2) structure Local folding folding along short sections of polypeptide interactions between adjacent amino acids
H bonds weak bonds between R groups forms sections of 3-D structure -helix -pleated sheet Tertiary (3) structure Whole molecule folding interactions between distant amino acids hydrophobic interactions
cytoplasm is water-based nonpolar amino acids cluster away from water H bonds & ionic bonds disulfide bridges covalent bonds between sulfurs in sulfhydryls (SH) anchors 3-D shape Quaternary (4) structure More than one polypeptide chain bonded together only then does polypeptide become
functional protein hydrophobic interactions collagen = skin & tendons hemoglobin Protein denaturation Unfolding a protein conditions that disrupt H bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges temperature pH salinity
alter 2 & 3 structure alter 3-D shape destroys functionality some proteins can return to their functional shape after denaturation, many cannot Nucleic Acids Information storage 2006-2007
Nucleic Acids Examples: RNA (ribonucleic acid) single helix DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helix Structure: monomers = nucleotides
DNA RNA Nucleotides 3 parts nitrogen base (C-N ring) pentose sugar (5C) ribose in RNA deoxyribose in DNA phosphate (PO4) group
Types of nucleotides 2 types of nucleotides different nitrogen bases purines double ring N base adenine (A) guanine (G) pyrimidines single ring N base cytosine (C) thymine (T) uracil (U)
5.1) Which term includes all others in the list? A) monosaccharide B) polysaccharide C) carbohydrate D) disaccharide 5.1) Which term includes all others in the list? A) monosaccharide B) polysaccharide C) carbohydrate D) disaccharide 5.2) Which of the following is not a protein? A) cholesterol
B) an enzyme C) insulin D) hemoglobin 5.2) Which of the following is not a protein? A) cholesterol B) an enzyme C) insulin D) hemoglobin 5.3) Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes? A) The purines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars. B) All bases would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.
C) The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken. D) The two strands of the double helix would separate. E) The pyrimidines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars. 5.3) Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes? A) The purines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars. B) All bases would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars. C) The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken. D) The two strands of the double helix would separate. E) The pyrimidines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.
5.4) Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is true? A) They contain more hydrogen than saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms. B) They are more common in animals than in plants. C) They have fewer fatty acid molecules per fat molecule. D) They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. E) They generally solidify at room temperature. 5.4) Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is true? A) They contain more hydrogen than saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms. B) They are more common in animals than in plants.
C) They have fewer fatty acid molecules per fat molecule. D) They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. E) They generally solidify at room temperature. 5.5) The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the A) tertiary level. B) primary level. C) secondary level. D) quaternary level. 5.5) The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the
A) tertiary level. B) primary level. C) secondary level. D) quaternary level. Practice FRQ Macromolecules Practice FRQ Macromolecules (10 points)
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