Chemistry Review

Chemistry Review

CHEMISTRY REVIEW Section 2.1 and 2.2 CHEMISTRY IN LIFE A-lkaline, alkaline earth, atoms, atomic number, atomic mass, actinoid, Anions B-oron, basic, bonds, BOHR C-ombine, chemical reaction, chemical bonds, chart, covalent bonds, compounds, Cations

D-ioxide, diatomic, Dalton E-lectrons, electron cloud, elements F-lorine, flora carbons, family G-roup, gold

H-ydrogen, hydrogen bonds I-ons, ionic bond, ISOTOPE J- Iodine K-Potassium

L-itium, lanthanoid M-etals, magnesium, mercury, Mendeleev, molecule, metalloids N-eutrons, negative, nucleus, noble gases, neutral, non-metals, neon, nitrogen O-xygen, oxide, oxygen group, oxidation, P-eriodic table, protrons, positive, period

Q- Quark R-ow, radio active, Rutherford, S-odium, silicone, shell, symbol T-itanium, transition metals , Thompson

U-ranium V-alence W- Tungsten X-enon

Y- Yttrium Z-inc, zigzag KEYSTONE ANCHORS BIO.A.2.1.1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth (e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion).

VOCABULARY Atom Proton Neutron Electron

Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Hydrogen Bond Molecule CHOPSN

Cohesion Adhesion Specific heat Acid Base Solute Solvent SECTION 2.1 ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES--OBJECTIVES Living things consist of atoms of different elements

Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons Atoms share pairs of electrons in covalent bonds Type I Response Box 1 List as many points that pop into your head when you see this table. DO NOT LIST INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS OR SPECIFIC NUMBERS. THE ATOM

The atom is the smallest basic unit of matter Atoms are teeny tiny How Small Are Atoms? THE ATOM There are three parts of a an atom Subatom Charge ic particle

proto _________ neutro n _________ n electro _________ n Location Positive Nucleus Neutral

Nucleus Negativ e Surroundin g nucleus ELEMENTS An elemen is one particular typeatom of t , and it cannot be broken down into a

simpler substance by ordinary chemical means Gold Aluminum Helium KEY ELEMENTS In biology, there are SIX very important elements carbo ________ n Hydrogen _________

oxyge Phosphorus n Sulfur ________ nitroge n ELEMENTS OF LIFE S P O CH N

HOW ARE ELEMENTS DIFFERENT The number of protons determines the identit of an element WH ELE ICH M T IS EN IT? y Carbon: 6 protons Oxygen: 8 protons

The number ofelectro determines the property of anns element Carbon: 6 electrons, 4 on OUTSIDE Oxygen: 8 electrons, 6 on OUTSIDE HO DO W ES AC IT T? Response Box 2

Type I DRAW THE DIAGRAM AND FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS BELOW. Label the diagram with Electrons(-) Neutrons Protons(+) 1) Protons 2) Neutrons 3) Electrons Then, determine the name of the element by writing the name

ABOVE the diagram. In at least two sentences, describe how you determined the identity of the atom. LONELY ATOMS Atoms rarely are found alone in nature They will do ANYTHING to get 8 to electrons on the outside Steal

Dump Share ARE THESE ATOMS HAPPY? THE ATOMS SHOWN ARE IN THEIR NEUTRAL STATE 1) DETERMINE THE NAME OF EACH ATOM AND WRITE ITS NAME ON THE LINE PROVIDED. 2) DETERMINE IF THE VALANCE LAYER OF EACH ATOM IS FULL. YES FOR FULL / NO FOR NOT ARGON ________________ HELIUM ________________ Yes / No

Yes / No Yes / No SODIUM ________________ ALUMINU ________________ M NEON ________________ Yes / No Yes / No

Yes / No OXYGEN ________________ FULL Response Box 3 Type I Think about the 4 elements that make up the MAJORITY of living things. List them and then describe how likely they are to bond with other elements. (Are they likely to give electrons away or take them from other elements?) C

H O N 4 valence electrons. Likely to bond in a VARIETY of ways 1 valence electrons. Likely to bond or dump electron 6 valence electrons. Likely to bond to gain 2 electrons 5 valence electrons. Likely to bond to gain 3 electrons COMPOUNDS A compound is a substance made of

atoms ofelemen different bonded together ts Result of sharing, stealing, or dumping electrons Atoms bonded in a specific ratio Response Box 4 Type I Organize the parts from smallest to largest Neutron, Atom, Electron, Proton, Compound, Element,

Electron, Proton/Neutron, Atom, Element, Compound CARBON CARBON COMPOUNDS Carbon can form many variousbonds __________ to form Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids

Crash Course - Carbon IONIC BOND Ionic __________________ are formed through the bonds electrical force between oppositely charged ions Opposites attract!

Ex: Salt aka sodium chloride (NaCl) Positive sodium (Na+) Negative chloride (Cl-) IONS Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electro one or more . nsa change in electrical charge Results in

Gain e Lose e- becomes ________________ negativ epositi becomes ________________ ve COVALENT BOND

Not all atoms easily gain or lose their electrons! share Some atoms ___________ their electrons instead! Covalent Bond: forms when atoms _____________ share a pair of electrons Usually a very strong bond Atoms may have several covalent bonds to share several electrons COVALENT BOND, CONT.

Molecule: two or more atoms held covalen together by bonds Ex:tcarbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon atoms needs 4 electrons to fill outer level, oxygen needs two Carbon shares with 2 oxygen! Ionic Bonds

Covalen t Bonds Word Bank for Venn Diagram Created by electrons Share Electrons Change Chemical Properties CO2 H2O Opposites attract Form Compounds

Dump/Steal Electrons Fill out shell Stronger Bonds Both are Bonds NaCl Not as Strong as Covalent Ionic Bonds Dump/Steal Electrons Opposites attract

NaCl Not as Strong as Covalent Covalen t Bonds Created by electrons Both are Bonds Form Compounds Share Electrons Fill out shell

CO2 H2O Stronger Bonds Change Chemical Properties SECTION 2.1 REVIEW 1. What distinguishes one element from another? 2. Describe the formation of an ionic compound. 3. What is the difference between and ionic bond and a covalent bond? 4. How does a molecule differ from an atom? SECTION 2.2 PROPERTIES OF WATER--OBJECTIVES

Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water. Many compounds dissolve in water. Some compounds form acids or bases. Crash Course - Water THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER CELLS

Organisms bodies, (their _____________), are made up of mostly ____________________ WATER The water in cells gives the cell _______________ STRUCTURE and ___________________ materials within TRANSPORTS organisms. All of the processes necessary for an organisms life take place within the ______________________________ of the cell WATERY ENVIRONMENT PROPERTIES RELATED TO HYDROGEN BONDS

______________________ 1. HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT ______________________ 2. COHESION ______________________ 3. ADHESION Negative Charge HYDROGEN BONDS O POLAR Water is a ______________ molecule

Form when atoms in a molecule UNEQUAL pulls on the have ____________ _____________ they share. ELECTRONS H H Positive Charge Positive Charge Opposite charges of polar molecules can interact to form ____________________ HYDROGEN bonds. Ted - water

An attraction between a slightly Shared Electrons _______________ hydrogen atom POSITIVE and a slightly ______________ NEGATIVE atom. (Usually _______________________________) OXYGEN OR NITROGEN Hydrogen bonds are part of the structures of _______________ and PROTEINS

of ______________ DNA Polarity Makes Water Behave Strangely HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT Hydrogen bonds give water an abnormally ____________________________. Water __________________ RESISTS changes in temperature because it must _____________ more ____________________ to increase in temperature. Absorb heat energy

COHESION Cohesion: the attraction among __________________ of the same MOLECULES substance. Cohesion from hydrogen bonds makes water molecules _____________________. STICK TOGETHER Cohesion produces __________________, SURFACE TENSION ( skin on water ) ADHESION Capillary

Action Adhesion: the attraction among __________________ MOLECULES of ______________ DIFFERENT substances. For example, water molecules stick to other things. Water in a test tube, (water is attracted to the ____________) GLASS ? TYPE II

How does water get to the leaves in the tops of the tallest trees against the force of gravity. Be sure to describe the type of molecules involved and name ALL of the properties of water that allow this phenomenon to occur. CAPILLARY ACTION is the process where water climbs up plants against gravity due to the cohesive and adhesive properties of water. Water is a polar molecule, meaning it has opposite charges at the molecules poles. In the ground, water clumps together because the water molecules are attracted to each other because of their opposite charges. This attraction is known as COHESION. The bonds that are formed between polar molecules are called HYDROGEN BONDS. Water is also attracted to the cells of the plants because the plant cells are polar as well. The attraction between two different molecules, (water and plant), is called ADHESION. Once again, hydrogen bonds

are formed between the plant cells and the water molecules. Hence, the water climbs up the plant because of the attraction to the plant cells and water flows up the tree because the hydrogen bonds between the water Universal Solvent Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground, the air, or THROUGH OUR BODIES, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, ITS andPOLARITY nutrients. WHY? __________________________________________ What needs to be dissolved in the body? Sugar

Salt Food TYPE I Describe the 3 unique properties of water and how they support life on Earth. Materials such as SUGARS ________________ and OXYGEN ____________ cannot be

transported form one part of an organism to another unless they are dissolved in blood, plant sap, or other water based fluids. MOLECULES DISSOLVE IN WATER SOLUTION ______________: Mixture of a substance that is the same throughout. ___________: SOLVENT Substance that is present

in the greater amount and dissolves another substance. ___________: SOLUTE Substance that dissolves in a solvent. ACIDS AND BASES ACIDS BASES Some compounds form ______________ or _____________ because they _______________ into _______________ BREAK UP

IONS when they dissolve in ___________. WATER BASE: Compounds that release OH- ions ACID: Compounds that release a proton from a solution

- a hydrogen ion(H+) when it dissolves in water TYPE I Draw 5 molecules of water. Show-with labels-the charges and hydrogen bonds between molecules In your drawing, demonstrate why one

side is positive and the other is negative. SECTION 2.2 REVIEW 1. How do polar molecules form hydrogen bonds? 2. What determines whether a compound will dissolve in water? 3. Compare acids and bases. 4. How do polar molecules differ from non-polar molecules? How does this difference affect their interactions? 5. Describe an example of cohesion or adhesion that you might observe during your daily life. HOW DO WE GET TO MACRO IN MACROMOLECU LES?

A detailed look at the process of polymerization KEYSTONE ANCHORS BIO.A.2.2.1 Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules. BIO.A.2.2.2 Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers. BIO.A.2.2.3 Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms

BIO.A.2.3.1 Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction. BIO.A.2.3.2 Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function VOCABULARY

ATP Carbohydrate s Catalyst Dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis lipid

Monomer Nucleic acid Polymer Polymerizatio n Product Protein Reactant CARBOHYDRATES CARBON CH2O WATER

THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE POLYMER POLYMERIZATION MANY PROCESS THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE POLYMER DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS UNDO WATERPROCESSPUT TOGETHER

THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE POLYMER VOCABULARY Monomer- one molecule Nucleic acid- genetic information Polymer- many molecules, (macromolecules) Polymerization- process of taking monomers and making polymers

Product- outcome/result of a chemical reaction Protein- polymer made up of amino acids Reactant- parts involved in a chemical reaction ATP- ENERGY molecule needed by body cells Carbohydrates-molecules made up carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (hydrates) Catalyst- start chemical reactions and lowers the amount of energy needed to initiate

reaction Dehydration synthesis- putting something together by removing water Hydrolysis- pulling something apart by adding water POLYMERIZATION

polymers Building large molecules (_________) from smaller ones (__________) monomers Several step process ALL KINDS OF POLYMERS POLYMER OR MONOMER Polymer or Monomer?

STEP 1: GET TWO MONOMERS glucose Both are _____________ together STEP 2: BRING THEM _____ STEP 3: ADD AN ENZYME enzyme STEP 3

This enzyme __________ carries out a reaction between the two monomers synthesisJoins two Dehydration ___________ ___________: molecules together by REMOVING _______ water AKA: condensation reaction STEP 4: BYE WATER! H2O ________

STEP 5: A DIMER! two REMEMBER, DIMER MEANS ________! STEP 6: LATHER, RINSE, REPEAT The enzyme can carry out numerous molecule dehydration synthesis reactions until a macro ___________ is created EX: ______________

starch Each one of these monomers is ___________ glucose Dehydratio n Synthesis Play-byPlay IS THIS REVERSIBLE? You better believe it! REVERSING POLYMERIZATION

hydrolysis Process called ____________. hydro __________ means water __________ means to split or lysis loosen adding This enzyme works by _________ water to a polymer General process name: depolymerization

turning polymers back into monomers BRING IN THE WATER! ENZYME H 2O AND THEY ARE SPLIT APART! What was previous a dimer is now two ______________ monomers again OBJECTIVES

Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. BUILDING BLOCKS OF CELLS PROTEIN P ____________________ LIPIDS ____________________ R L CARBOHYDRATES

____________________ O I C ____________________ ATP T P A A NUCLEIC ACID ____________________ N E I R T P A I D B

N Crash Course You are wha t you eat Bozeman Molecules of lif e MONOMER & POLYMER Each subunit of a complete carbon-based molecule is called monome a ______________ r

polyme is a large A _____________ r molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together Monomers of a polymer may be the same (ex. Starches) Or different (proteins) COMPOUND BUILDING BLOCK

(POLYMER) (MONOMER) PROTEIN AMINO ACID LIPID (FAT) FATTY ACID CARBOHYDRATE SUGARS

NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDE 1. Amino Acids are to proteins as nucleotides are to ____________________. 2. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen are to carbohydrates as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfer, and nitrogen are to ________________ 3. Glucose is to monosaccaride as ____________________ is to polysaccaride.

4. Amino acid is to 5. DNA is to nucleic acid as ____________________________ is to protein Bozeman - Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are molecules hydrog composed of carbon, ______________, and

en oxygen Include sugars & starches Can be broken down to provide useable energy for cells Major part of plant cell structure Themonosaccharid most basic carbs are simple sugars, es _______________________ polyme

rs Polysaccharides are ______________ of Bozeman - Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS Proteins are the most varied of the carbon-based molecules in organisms Have a role in movement, eyesight, digestion,etc

A protein is a polymer made of monomers Amino called amino acids acids _________________ are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur Organisms use 20 different amino acids to build proteins The body makes 12 of the 20, the other 8

Bozeman - Proteins come from food PROTEINS LIPIDS Bozeman - Lipids Lipids are nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol Contain chains of carbon bonded to oxygen

& hydrogen Energy storage Phospholipids make up _____________________ cell membrane ________________ Fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. Saturated fatty acids have single carboncarbon bonds (solid @ room temp) Unsaturated fatty acids have double carbon-carbon bonds (liquid @ room temp) LIPIDS

Bozeman - Lipids EVIEW ORGANIC MOLECULE You Are What You Eat: Organic Molecules ATP MAJOR ___________ ENERGY CARRYING ___________ MOLECULE IN CELL. ENERGY IN __________________ CARBOHYDRATES AND __________ LIPIDS AND _____________________ MUST BE TRANSFERRED TO

PROTEINS ATP IN CELL TO BE USED. Bozeman Nucleic acids NUCLEIC ACIDS Detailed instructions to build proteins are stored in extremely long carbonbased molecules called nucleic acids ____________________ Nucleic are polymers that are madeacids up of monomers called nucleotides

HAVE ALL INFO NEEDED TO MAKE __________. PROTEIN _______________ BLUE PRINT OF LIFE. BUILDING BLOCKS OF NUCLEOTIDES _____________. TWO TYPES: ________ AND _______. DNA RNA Bozeman Nucleic acids NUCLEIC ACIDS SECTION 2.3 REVIEW 1. What is the relationship between a polymer and a monomer?

Monomers are the basic units of organic compounds that make up Polymers, (which are macromolecules of organic compounds) 2. Explain how both nucleic acids and proteins are polymers. Be sure to describe the monomers that make up the polymers. Nucleic acids are made up of the monomers called nucleotides and proteins are made up of the monomers called amino acids. Therefore they are both polymers. 3. How are carbohydrates and lipids similar? How are they different? Both carbohydrates and lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They differ in the way they provide organisms energy: Carbs provide short term energy, and lipids provide long term energy. (Diagramscarbs are arranged in rings and lipids are long carbon chains 4. Explain how the bonding properties of carbon atoms result in the large variety of carbon-based molecules in living things? Because carbon has four electrons in its outer energy level, it allows carbon

to be versatile with bonding properties. Carbon can bond in several arrangements: chains, branches, and rings. It can form single and double covalent bonds. TYPE I Describe the unique characteristics of carbon that allow it form biological macromolecules TYPE I Explain how you would identify each macromolecule by looking at a diagram of the macromolecule.

2.4 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES Bonds break and form during chemical reactions. Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Bonds break &form reactions during chemical Plant/Animal cells break down sugars to get usable energy Cells build protein molecules by bonding amino acids together Chemical reactions change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds

SPEED UP CHEMICAL REACTIONS WHILE GETTING A DATE FOR DANCE CHEMICAL REACTIONS are the substance changed during a chemical reactions Reactants Oxygen (O2) & Glucose (C6H12O6) are the substances made by a chemical reaction

Products Carbon Dioxide (CO2) & Water (H2O) 6O2 + C6H12O6 Reactants 6CO2 + 6H2O Products ITS ALL ABOUT THE ENERGY needed

Energy is __________ to break bonds in molecules released Energy is ___________ when bonds are formed CHEMICAL REACTIONS, CONT. Generous chemical RXNs that release more energy than they absorb =Exothermic reaction

Excess energy is the difference in bond energy between the reactants and products Excess energy is often released as heat or light Cellular respiration releases usable energy for your cells & heat! CHEMICAL REACTIONS, CONT. Greedy chemical RXNs that absorb more energy than they release = Endothermic

reaction In photosynthesis, plants absorb energy from sunlight and use that to make sugars and carbohydrates BUT HOW DOES A RXN START? Some energy must first be absorbed by the reactants in ANY chemical reaction The

amount of energy needed will vary is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start Activation energy Push a rock up a hill SECTION 2.4 REVIEW 1. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) breaks down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). Explain why this is a chemical reaction. What are the reactants and the products in the reaction? 2. How does energy related to the formation and breaking of bonds? 3. How do endothermic and exothermic reactions differ?

2.5 Enzymes Enzyme Animation Bozeman - Enzymes OBJECTIVES A catalyst lowers activation energy. Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled

conditions. CATALYST To start a chemical RXN, activation energy is necessary The reaction may happen very slowly Reactants may not interact enough, may not be high enough concentration Activation energy & rate of a chemical reaction can be changed by a chemical catalyst

decreases catalyst is a substance that _______________ the activation energy needed to start a reaction rate of the reaction Also increases the ________ A ENZYME Enzymes _____________ are catalysts for reactions in living things Lower

the activation energy Increase the rate of the reaction Do not effect chemical equilibrium Does not change the direction of the reaction Almost all enzymes are proteins Depend on their structure to function correctly Conditions such as temperature and pH can affect the function

SUBSTRATES An enzymes structure is vital because their shape allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme The specific reactants that an enzyme acts on are called substrates Substrates bind to enzymes at specific active sites

places called Substrates exactly fit the active sites of enzymes, like a key exactly fits a lock This is why if an enzymes structure changes, it may not work Quia Quiz Enzyme Song SECTION 2.5 REVIEW 1. How does a catalyst affect the activation energy of a chemical reaction? 2. Describe how the interaction between an enzyme and its substrates changes a chemical reaction.

3. Some organisms live in very hot or very cold acidic environments. Would their enzymes function in a persons cells? Why or why not? 4. Suppose that the amino acids that make up an enzymes active site are changed. How might this change affect the enzyme? TYPE I Explain how changes in environment impacts an enzyme Be sure to include the terms: denature, active site, substrate, pH, and temperature. Monomer MONOSACCHARIDES

NUCLEOTIDE FATTY ACID AMINO ACID Polymer POLYSACCHARIDES DNA/RNA POLYPEPTIDE FAT Function BUILDING BLOCK OF BODY QUICK ENERGY SOURCE LONG TERM ENERGY STORES GENETIC CODE

Elements CHO CHO 1:2:2 CHOSN CHOPN Put them all together! NAME MONOMER POLYMER ELEMENTS PICTURE

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