Chemistry - SCHOOLinSITES

Chemistry - SCHOOLinSITES

Chemistry Atom the basic building blocks of matter The Atom Nucleus

Protons positive charge Neutrons neutral charge Electron Shell Electrons negative charge

2lsAmWTaW9312Fl The Atom W9312Fl&index=66

mWTaW9312Fl&index=102 The Periodic Table Element substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means into another substance Atomic Number

Element Symbol Atomic Mass Number Bohr Models of Atoms Atomic Number number of protons in an

atoms nucleus Atomic Mass Number combined number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom 044672.html

Bohr Models of Atoms Electron Shells

1st 2 2nd 8 3rd 18 4th 32 The highest energy level with any electrons in it

is called the outer shell. Using the Periodic Table Period Family

Three Groups Metals Conduct heat and electricity well Becomes shiny when polished Melt at high

temperatures Can be easily reshaped Three Groups Nonmetals Have a dull surface Melt at lower temperatures Tend to break when

bent Three Groups Metalloids Have properties of both metals and nonmetals

Mystery Elements Game! /phy03_int_ptable/phy03_int_ptable.swf Try Matching Elements with their Symbols When one or more electrons from one atoms jumps to or is shared with another atom, a compound is formed. Sodium- shiny metal that catches fire when put in water and tarnishes quickly in air

Chlorine- a poisonous green gas m Formation of Sodium Chloride Na+ Cl- Atoms with positive or negative charges are called ions.

Types of Bonds Ionic Bond - compound formed when an atom gives an electron to another atom Covalent Bond - when two or more atoms

share their electrons with each other AmWTaW9312Fl Molecules A molecule is the smallest particle of

a compound that still has all the qualities of that compound. Chemical Formulas 2 Hydrogens H 2O

1 Oxygen Phases of Matter Solids Liquids Gases Plasma

Temperature is a measurement of how hot or cold something is. It is a measure of how fast the particles in a material are moving. Solids Definite shape Particles move slowly

Particles packed tightly together, Liqu id, Gas Liquids Definite

volume No definite shape Takes shape of its container Particles flow more easily than in solids

Gases No definite shape

No definite volume Particles flow freely Particles are spread far apart Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Solids How tightly are the atoms packed together? How do the atoms

move? Examples Liquids Gases

Plasma Extremely hot Electrically charged Gaseous 99% of matter in the universe Rare on Earth Found mainly in

lightning bS_6i2lsAmWTaW9312Fl Melting Point- solid becomes a liquid (melting) Boiling Point liquid becomes a

gas (vaporization/evaporation) Freezing Point liquid becomes a solid (freezing) Sublimation - occurs when a substance

changes directly from a solid to a gas Physical Changes A physical change changes the property of a substance without changing the substance completely. In other words, a physical change is reversible.

Chemical Change Chemical changes cause a new substance to be formed, and they also either release energy or absorb it. Signs of a chemical change include: Smoking Change in color

Change in temperature Bubbling or fizzing Mixture a physical combination of two or more substances that blend together without forming new substances. Homogenous Mixtures a

mixture that has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout. Heterogenous Mixtures - a mixture that contains distinct substances that are physically and often

visibly separate. Suspension a heterogeneous mixture made of parts that separate upon standing. Emulsion a suspension of two liquids that

usually do not mix together; rather, droplets are suspended Colloids a stable mixture in which small, fine particles of one material are scattered throughout another material blocking the passage of light and not settling out. 312Fl&index=103 Solubility SOLUBILITY is the ability of a substance to dissolve.

In the process of dissolving, the substance which is being dissolved is called a solute and the substance in which the solute is dissolved is called a solvent. solvent solute

A mixture of solute and solvent is called a solution. Factors that Affect Solubility: 1. Stirring 2. Crushing 3. Temperature How Can You Take a Mixture Apart? Filtration separating a liquid from a dense, insoluble solid.

Distillation process of separating liquids by using evaporation and condensation W9312Fl&index=103 Acids and Bases Comparison of Acids and Bases Acids: Chemical formulas begin with H Have a pH less than 7

Taste sour Turns blue litmus paper red Examples: soda, vinegar, fruit juices, tomatoes Bases: Chemical formulas end

with OH Have a pH greater than 7 Taste bitter and feel slippery Turns red litmus paper blue Examples: Antacids, household cleaners, egg whites

Acids or Bases? 10 4 11 8

2 3 =Acids And Bases

Neutrals A substance that is a 7 on the pH scale is called a neutral. Water is an example of a neutral substance.

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