(1899-1901) 1st War with Japan (1894-95) 1st Opium War (1839-40) 1925 Fall of Qing Dynasty
(1911) Civil War: CCP vs. KMT (1927-1949) 2nd War with Japan (1937-1945) Japan and China Stand Alone - Japan and China were never colonized by European countries
they were too big and powerful. - China = history of isolationThe Middle Kingdom - During colonial age, China felt they did not need anything from foreignersself-sufficient. The Opium Wars - By the 1800s, Great Britain imported millions of pounds of tea from China, and had to pay for it in silver. This depleted
British silver. - Eventually, Britain illegally sold opium, an illegal drug, for silver, and used this silver to buy the tea. After a few decades, by 1835, 12 million Chinese were addicts and more were becoming hooked. - The Opium Wars (1839-42 and 1856-60), were between China and Great Britain. It was fought mostly at sea, and the British won easily. - As a result, Britain won rights to Hong Kong, and extraterritorial rights extended places to trade as well. The opium trade continued, and China was embarrassed and angry.
- 1850 China population = 430 million, the highest in China after the Opium War the world. It grew 30% in 60 years, yet food production barely increased. Hunger was common, and flooding, etc. made things worse at times. - By now, the Qing Dynasty, who were Manchurians (NE
China) and foreigners in the eyes of many, were tottering on collapse. Lots of corruption, overall dismay. Taiping Rebellion - Hong Xiuquan failed Chinas civil examinations multiple times and had a nervous breakdown. - In the late 1840s, Hong had visions. He
claimed that he was the brother of Jesus Christ. Eventually, his leadership started The Taiping Rebellion (1850-64), a huge civil war (The Heavenly Kingdom). Between 20-100 million people died, many through starvation. This conflict was one of the most deadly in world history. - Xiuquan wanted: no opium, tobacco, gambling, or alcohol, men and women to be equal but not be allowed to mingle, Christianity (their version of it), and the
Qing Dynasty out of power. - Foreigners helped the Qing Dynasty win. The British, duped by the Qings, also had a huge interest to maintain China trade. They stayed out of the US Civil War, which hurt business badly. - At the end of the conflict, thousands of Taipings committed suicide by burning themselves instead of pledging their loyalty to the Qing Emperor.
- Empress Dowager Cixi (originally a concubine) ruled China from 1891-1908. She was one of only 3 women to ever rule China. She was not the emperor, but controlled everything through powerless (i.e. too young) emperors, and was a ruthless politician. - Her government made small reforms, but it was overall very conservative and continued to fall behind the West. - The West increased control over Chinas economy. Spheres of influence developed; foreigners
controlled areas of trade and investment, and had special privileges. - Japan fought China in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) over rights to Korea. Japan won easily, and as a result they gained Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands. - In 1899, the US successfully proposed an Open Door Policy, which completely opened Chinas ports to all countries. It protected US trading rights, and it at least guaranteed that China would not be colonized outright
- In 1898, 27 year-old Guangxu emperor had 104 days of reform after Cixis rumored retirement. This Hundred Days Reform, to modernize China, was crushed by Cixi and her allies. Cixi ruled until her death in 1908. Cixi Rules China Boxer Rebellion - In 1899, the Society of
Harmonious Fists, or Righteous Harmony Society, or Boxers, rebelled, and were opposed to foreigners special privileges, Christianity, poverty, and opium. - By 1900, thousands surrounded the European section of Beijing chanting, Death to the foreign devils! This lasted for months. This became known as The Boxer Rebellion.
- Eventually, the Qings supported the rebellion. The UK, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Italy, Russia, and USA all sent in 20,000 troops, squashed the rebellion, and fined the Chinese 450 million tales of silver, which was bigger than the governments annual revenue! The money was to be paid over 39 years.
- In 1911, the Qing Dynasty was finally overthrown. Not only were the Qing overthown, this was the first time in Chinese history of a new form of government. - The Kuomintang (KMT), or Nationalist Party, pushed for reforms and new government. -Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-Sen) = leader, he lived in the US for many years. A.k.a. The Father of
Modern China. - Yixian was the first President. He encouraged Nationalism (antiforeigner), Peoples rights (democratic government), and Livelihood (economic security). A New China Emerges The Warlord Era
- Yixian was President for only 6 weeks. Yuan Shikai, a powerful general, took power, and by 1913 he ran China like a corrupt dictator. - Mutiny caused Shikais fall in 1916, and chaos reigned. The Warlord Era (1916-1928), was where various warlords controlled parts of China. Chinas
infrastructure and economy fell into ruins, and famine was widespread. - In 1917, China entered World War I on the side of the Allies, hoping to achieve more autonomy after the war. . Despite winning, many of the same
problems remained, and the Chinese were not happy with the wars treaty. Chinese Communism - In 1919, the May Fourth Movement was an overall protest against imperialism, current Chinese problems, and the Treaty of
Versailles (post WWI treaty). - The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) began in 1921, with Mao Zedong, their future leader, among its founders. This group looked to the USSR and Communism as a solution. The KMT allied with the Communists temporarily to battle the warlords; Yixian became disenchanted with the West.
- In 1923, the USSR sent military advisers and equipment to China. Many Chinese went to Moscow for training too. China Civil War - Yixian died in 1925, and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) became the KMTs new leader. He was an enemy of Communism. - In 1927, after the KMT fought
warlords together with the CCP, the KMT killed many Communist leaders and union members. Civil War had begun, and it would last until 1949. - In 1928, Jiang declared himself the President of the National Republic of China. The USSR did not recognize it. Japan vs. China
- Many peasants joined the CCP Maos version of Communism emphasized that peasants were the key, not urban workers (like Lenin thought). - In 1933, the KMT had 700,000 troops surround the CCP (6-7x the CCP). In 1934, the CCP began The Long March: 100,000 CCP soldiers fled 6,000 miles to NW China, barely
escaping the KMT the entire trip. 1030 thousand survived and hid. - In 1937, Japan invaded Manchuria. The Second Sino-Japanese War began. - The CCP and KMT pledged to temporarily stop and fight Japan, but the CCP did not really participate; instead they and gathered their strength back. - In the early 1600s, feudal Japan kicked out all
foreigners. Only the small port of Nagasaki was open to the Dutch for trade. The Meiji Period - During this time, Japan was ruled by the Shogun, or general, who was head of the samurai class. The Emperor of Japan was the official leader, but not in practicality. - By the mid-1800s, pressure from abroad to trade with Japan mountedin 1853 Commodore
Matthew Perry of the US sailed 4 ships into Tokyo, and Japanese people were amazed. The US helped force Japan to open up for trade. - By 1860, Japan had treaty ports open to foreign trade - By 1867, the Tokugawa Shogun stepped down, and the Meiji Period began (1897-1912) after a cultural war with the samurai. - During the Meiji period, Japan became a country like other European powers. Japan built a huge military, railroads, industrialization, etc. In
1894, Japan ended territorial rights with Western countries, unlike China. The Russo-Japanese War - Japan defeated China in the First Sino-Japanese War (over Korea), in 1895. - Russia and Japan, two growing nations, went to war in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05). The war was over Manchuria (in 1903, Japan offered Russia rights to Manchuria if Russia would stay out of Korea, and Russia refused). - Japan quickly drove Russia out of Korea, and beat Russia
badly at sea (including the Black Fleet, which had sailed around Africa to fight). - US President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the peace terms, and Japan won the war. This marked the first time an Asian country defeated a European one in modern times. Korean Occupation - Japan won a protectorate over Korea as a result of the war, but by 1907 Japan controlled Korea completely,
and in 1910 annexed it. - Japan was a cruel imperial leader to Korea: public protests were illegal, Korean schools were taken over and Japanese was to be spoken only, etc. - Japans nationalism and imperialist tendencies grew. Japan Becomes Fascist
- During the 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. However, only the Emperor still controlled the military. - During the Great Depression in the 1930s, the government was blamed, and military leaders took power. Japan became Fascist. - The new Fascist Japanese government emphasized nationalism and a desire to conquer all of Asia. - In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, setting up a puppet government that was ruled by Japan in everything but name. - The League of Nations protested the Manchurian invasion,
but did nothing. Japan quit the League in 1933. The Second SinoJapanese War - Finally, Japan invaded China in 1937, and the Second SinoJapanese War had begun. This eventually helped lead to World War II. Beijing and Nanjing (Nanking) fell. - The Nanking Massacre (Rape of Nanking) saw 250,000-300,000 people killed,
also looting and rape were everywhere. There was even a race set up with two officers, challenging each other to be the first to kill 100 people! - The Rape of Nanking turned world opinion (including US) against the Japanese and for the Chinese.
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