China in the 1800s: The Qing Dynasty - Typepad

China in the 1800s: The Qing Dynasty - Typepad

China in the 1800s: The Qing Dynasty The Opium War, 1839-1842 During the 18th Century, the market in Europe and America for tea (a new drink in the West) expanded greatly Was continuing demand for silk and porcelain The West had little China wanted resulted in third-party

trade (raw materials from colonies) The Opium War, 1839-42 Finally, found something the Chinese wanted: opium By 1800s, raw cotton and opium from India were two main British imports to China (despite the fact that opium was illegal in China) In 1839, Qing government

cracked down on opium traffic and destroyed 20,000 chests of illegal opium The Opium War, 1839-42 Britain retaliated and China was disastrously defeated Chinese self-image was injured beyond repair Treaty of Nanjing (1842) first of unequal treaties or national

humiliations Britain got Hong Kong Opened ports to foreign trade Extraterritoriality (exemption for British nationals from Chinese laws) Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64 During mid-19th Century, China was hit by a series of natural disasters of unprecedented proportions draughts, famines, and floods Qing administration did little was horribly corrupt and was widespread anti-Manchu (Qing) sentiment

Southern China had been last to yield to Qing and first to be exposed to the West Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64 Largest uprising in modern Chinese history Lead by Hong Xiuquan Believed he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ and God had commanded him to save humanity Soon had 1,000s of followers who were anti-Qing

Procliamed the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace or Taiping Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64 Hong advocated radical social reform Peasants would own the land Taiping army captured Nanjing and went far to the North 30 million people killed

The Tongzhi Restoration and the SelfStrengthening Movement Opium war, unequal treaties, and rebellion caused Chinese officials to recognize need to strengthen China Tongzhi Restoration attempted to strengthen Qing Dynasty, but was not a real modernization program Named for Tongzhi Emperor (186274), but really run by the emperors mother, Empress Dowager Ci Xi (1835-1908)

Self-Strengthening Movement Lead by scholars and Generals who put down Taiping Rebellion Wanted to infuse Western Learning into Chinese society Students studied abroad Tried to establish industry on Western model

Tried to modernize the military Tried to improve communication and transportation Foreign Domination of China After the Taiping Rebellion, warlords negotiated and granted Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia exclusive trading rights, with monopolies on certain trading ports in China The US had not acquired any

territory: proposed the Open Door Policy all foreign countries would have equal access to Chinese ports While for selfish reasons, the Open Door Policy probably kept China from being colonized. The Boxer Rebellion

Imperial court responded to foreign threat by giving aid to various secret societies Policy reached climax in 1900 with the Boxer Rebellion Western response was swift and severe Boxer Protocol The Revolution of 1911 The last emperor, Pu Yi (a young boy) was overthrown Lead by Sun Yixian Sun Yixian

Pu Yi Three Principles of the People (san min zhuyi): "nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood." The principle of nationalism called for overthrowing the Qing and ending foreign hegemony over China. The second principle, democracy, was used to describe Sun's goal of a popularly elected republican form of government. People's livelihood, often referred to as

socialism, was aimed at helping the common people through regulation of the ownership of the means of production and land.

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