Chordates - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

Chordates - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

Chordates Phylum Chordata Chordates What is a chordate? 1. Has either a backbone or

a notochord (vertebrate) 2. Can either be an ectotherm or an endotherm 3. Only 4-5% of animals are chordates What is a vertebrate?

Animals with a backbone or vertebral column (notochord) Have spinal cord- dorsal, hollow nerve cord Front end of spinal cord develops a brain Sea

Squirt or Tunicate Lancelet http://www.diverosa.com/categories/Ascidians.htm Chordates

Endotherm (warmblooded) Has a stable body temperature Ectotherm (coldblooded) Can change body temperature due to the

environment Chordate Cladogram Section 30-1 Birds

Amphibians Fishes Nonvertebrate chordates Invertebrate ancestor

Reptiles Mammals Chordates Vertebrate Classes Jawless Fish (lamprey, hagfish)

Cartilage Fish (sharks, rays) Bony Fish (salmon, catfish, goldfish..) Amphibians (frogs, toads) Reptiles (lizards, turtles) Birds (sparrows, hawks) Mammals (humans, whales, dogs)

What are Fish? Anything with gills, scales and fins 1st fish were jawless Devonian Period - Age of Fish Fossil of a devonian fish With jaws and armored plates

http://www.fossilmuseum.net/EdResources/FishImages.htm Fish have a two chambered heartblood is passed over the gills where it picks up oxygen Respiration Water passes over GILLS, oxygen

is added Some fish have gill covers OPERCULUM (Some fish have special organs to serve as lungs; lungfish) Excretion Homeostasis: maintaining

balance, internal conditions (in the case of fish, water balance) Salt water fish tend to lose water Fresh water fish tend to gain water *This is why you cant put a salt water fish in a fresh water tank.

Other Fish Adaptations Fish fins help stabilize the fish and propel it forward Swim Bladder - maintains buoyancy (like a balloon) Reproduction

Spawning- fish lay eggs that are fertilized externally Warm Up 1. What are the steps of complete metamorphosis? 2. What are the stages of

incomplete metamorphosis? 3. What is an open circulatory system? 4. How do bivalves move and feed? Class - Amphibians

Amphibians Amphibian- means double life Why? After beginning their lives in water, most amphibians spend

their adulthood on land, returning to water to reproduce. (Lose gills and acquire lungs) http:// video.nationalgeographic.com/

video/player/animals/amphibiansanimals/frogs-and-toads/ frog_greentree_lifecycle.html Amphibians 3 types/orders: Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders and newts),

and Gymnophiona (caecilians, limbless amphibians that resemble snakes) Whats the difference between a frog and a toad? 1. Many toads have lumps behind

their eyes that contain poison that oozes out when they are attacked. 2. Skin Frogs are moist and smooth Toads are dry and bumpy Frog Dissection What are the rules of lab?

How should we behave? http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ genbio/virtual_labs/BL_16/ BL_16.html Frog Dissection- Mouth

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Reptiles Reptiles An ectothermic vertebrate that has lungs and scaly skin. Major Groups:

Lizards Snakes Turtles Alligators Crocodiles 4 living orders are

typically recognized: Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 23 species Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 species Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): approximately 9,150 species

Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises): over 300 species QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Reptiles

Unlike amphibians, which have a thin, moist skin, reptiles have dry, tough skin covered with scales. Skin protects and helps keep water in their bodies. Reptiles

Lizards and snakes shed their skin. All snakes are carnivores but not all lizards are. Turtles have a shell made from their ribs and backbone. Reptiles

What is the difference between an alligator and a croc? Alligators have broad, rounded snouts, with only a few teeth visible. Crocodiles have pointed snouts, and you can see most of their teeth. QuickTime and a

decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Birds

Bird: an endothermic vertebrate that has feathers and a four-chambered heart, and lays eggs. The rule is: If it has feathers, its a bird.

Birds Feathers: Contour: one of the large feathers that give shape to a birds body. Flight: long contour feathers that extend beyond the body on

the wings and tail. Down: short, fluffy that are specialized to trap heat and keep a bird warm. Birds Feed

Capture, grip and handle food, birds use their bills. Bills specify per species Internal storage tank called a crop Birds do not have teeth, a gizzard performs the grinding

function Birds Adaptations for Flight 4 chambered heart Highly efficient respiratory system Lightweight bones with air spaces

Evolution of Birds Create a Venn Diagramcharacteristics of reptiles, similarities, characteristics of birds. Then come up with your own explanation of the evolution of birds.

The evolutionary origin of birds has always been a subject of considerable debate. Birds and flying reptiles have delicate, lightweight skeletons which do not fossilize well - hindering studies on

how the birds evolved. The first bird fossil to be found was a feather, which was discovered in 1860 in a limestone quarry in Bavaria. The feather was given the name Archaeopteryx, which is Greek for 'ancient feather'. A year

later an almost complete skeleton of Archaeopteryx was discovered in the same quarry, with the feathers and other fine structures preserved in minute detail. The skeleton showed

several features which are intermediate between reptiles and birds, suggesting that Archaeopteryx and the other birds evolved from a dinosaur similar to the

Velociraptor featured in the film 'Jurassic Park'. Seven partial or complete Archaeopteryx skeletons have now been found, and they are still among the most famous, and

scientifically valuable, fossils. Mammals All mammals are endothermic vertebrates with a 4 chambered heart and skin covered with fur or

hair. Mammals

All mammals have. 1. Hair or fur 2. Mammary glands (feed with milk) 3. Distinctive teeth

4. Highly developed brain 5. Extended care for the young Mammals Three groups of mammals Monotremes Marsupials

Placental mammals Mammals Monotremes Mammals that lay eggs Two species: Spiny anteaters

Duck-billed platypuses Mammals Marsupials Young born alive at an early stage, but continue to develop in a pouch Examples:

Kangaroos Koalas Wallabies opossums Mammals Placental Mammals

Develop inside a mothers body until its body system can function independently. Examples: Insect-eaters Flying mammals Primates Rodents

Rabbits/hares Marine mammals Hoofed mammals

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